Last tango

About Borrida, this amazing phenomenon of Spanish culture, argue for several centuries. The great writers wrote about it, they reasoned wonderful philosophers, the scenes from the corrida were portrayed ingenious artists. Some turned out to be her hot fans, others categorically rejected the right of the corrida to existence. But in spite of everything, it remains an integral part of the life of Spain and other countries with related traditions – Portugal, Mexico, South of France.

Word "Corrida" So simple "running" – In this case, bulls. Called her I "Tavromahai", Greek word denoting "Bull Boy". Roots of the Corrida go to the dark depths of human civilization. The ritual games associated with bulls were practiced in two thousand years before the Hist of Christ in Ancient India. At the same time, the cult of bull and festivities associated with it was the most important in the religion of the mysterious people who inhabited the island of Crete. In Egypt, Bull Hapi personified the power and fertility of the Nile. There were bullish rituals among the ancient Jews – remember "Golden Taurus", And at the Phoenicians, skillful navigators, one of the first colonizing the Pyrenean Peninsula. Whether they brought some ancient prototypes of the corrida to the land of Spain? There were bulls for bulls and Celts – by the way, the Irish once called their country of Iberia and believed that their ancestors arrived from Iberia, Spain.

All this is explained. What another animal can become the symbol of power, rage, fertilizing force with the same right? And the inhabitants of the Mediterranean with their tendency to "Machizm", The cult of the mains of masculinity and ritual beauty inevitably had to turn the ancient rites into something, which is both sports and art, but preserving quite religious roots.

Corrida can be treated differently. You can see in it beautiful, sophisticated art; It can be considered its non-disabilities bloody barbarism and require it to prohibit. Personally, I do not treat the number of selfless fans of the Corrida. But, I must admit that, knowingly not to her special love, being on the steps of the arena, got under her lush and gloomy charm. As for barbarism and bloody, then dog fights are much more wild and bloody. And professional boxing, real rugby, etching foxes and hares, not to mention modern "Gladiator battles" – Is it possible to attribute to humane and sophisticated classes?

The story of the Corrida in Spain, as already mentioned, very ancient. However, until the XVIII century "Pesgo" The battle with the bull did not exist: participants "Feria" – The festivities teased and killed an animal from a horse. Modern Corrida was born in 1775 in the town of Ronda near Malaga, where "Equestrian noble society" (Real Maestra de Caballeria) The magnificent baroque isna was built. It is here that the legendary Francisco Romero, the ancestor of the famous Toreros dynasty, first dared to play with a bull, standing on Earth. This act was perceived as mad heroism, almost suicide. But connoisseurs are conquered. Francisco Romero becomes head of school "Torreo", He is inherited by the son of Juan, the grandson of Pedro, and such masters of the past era, like Pepe Hilllo, Kostyllares, Kucharse, Kurro-Guillelen, Heroes of People’s Balads, still enjoying almost religious reverence. And Ronda becomes "Academy of Corrida", Speech on its arena is the same as obtaining a prestigious scientific degree.

Then the arena are built in Madrid, Seville, Malaga, Cordove, other cities. It is by the end of the XVIII century that the style of the costumes of the participants of the Corrida – the Great Francisco Goya in his works captured outfits, practically not different from modern – and the whole style of a lush ceremonial, striking even full profan.

Gradually produced I "choreography" Corrida, in difficulty not inferior, and perhaps even superior classic ballet. In Corrida, everything is codified, in a professional language there are hundreds of terms denoting the smallest nuances of the movements of participants, their movements by the arena, ways to pour a bull with a peak, to approximate "Bandyril" or apply a crucible sword. Naturally, only an expert is able to remember and distinguish all these subtleties. Class "Torreo" determined not to whether he managed to avoid the bull strike. It is important how rich in his technique, as he follows, or enriches it, almost elusive movements of fingers, neck or legs are valued. Even the last moment of the murder of the bull – the question "Grace" And at the same time science: "Torreo" perfectly know the anatomy of the bull, own the ability to put the sword in such a way that the bull died instantly or agonated for a while, fell before death on the front legs or.

Still "Torreos" represent a closed Casta, but there are several schools that differ among themselves both on important conceptual and in perfectly mysterious for the uninitiated features. Some schools believe that all idea should be only smooth preparation for the end act – the murder of the bull, others believe that every movement in Borrid is a self-sufficient act, others try to combine both positions. In addition, the profession "Torreo", Dangerous and ritualized, inevitably leads to superstitiousness, exposure to all sorts of signs, the use of amulets and conspiracies. Especially it is famous "Torreos" Andalusskaya I "Gypsy" school. They can flatly refuse to enter the arena, if they have a bad premonition, if they believe that the cloud in the sky has an evil form. Sometimes it causes the perturbation of the audience, but more often they belong to the superstition "Torreo" With a complete understanding.

For "Torreo" Bull during the Corrida acquires the features of the demon, respectively, the fight against it becomes similar to the struggle of the saint, whom the devils are tempted and trying to destroy his soul. W "Torreos" Prayer is very popular to particularly clearly by the image of Jesus Christ from Torrichos: "When I was almost killed, I betrayed myself in the hands of the All-life Jesus Christ from Torrichos and saw that the Lord sketched wonderful cover on the beast and took the bull from the unworthy slave of his". The Catholic Church saw something perfectly in Corrida clearly rooted in paganism and magic. Back in 1567, Papa Pope V issued a special Bulla "De Salutis Gregio Dominicis" – "About the salvation of herd of the Lord", Forbidden under the fear of overpowering from the church to all believers to attend bovine battles or participate in them. Spain Country is very catholic, but even such a good decision of the Holy See did not affect. And it still does not act – as well as the indignation of opponents of the Corrida, seeing meaningless risk for people and painful death for animals.

As great "Torreos" The former times mentioned above and the masters of our century in Spain are almost canonized. "Hozelito" Sanchez Mexias, Juan Belmont, Orthie, Rafael "El Gallo", Manuel Himenes "Chikuelo", Granero, Pepe Louis, Manolte, Juan Garcia "Monday", Armillita Chico, Carlos Arruz, Domintin, Kagancho. Names from this Pantheon for many Spaniards are more expensive than the names of great politicians, scientists, writers, football players or rock stars.

The fate of the great participants of the Corrid was different. Some died during the fight, others calmly lived to old age. But the profession is dangerous. Since 1747, when the written story of Corrida began, during the battles more than 700 Toroo, Bandyrillery, Picaders, Assistants and Ceremonies were killed. Their names still shine stars on the hot sky of Tavromakhi.

There is complete and complex statistics. The most dangerous professions in Corrida – "Young assistants", Bandyrillero, Picadora. Matadora, Toroo are in fourth place. Arena, where the largest tragedy – Madrid, Seville and Barcelona occurred. The greatest number of deaths fall on June, August, September. And the most dangerous bulls occur with Ranch Anastasis Martin, Veragua, Lopez Fee, Mura, Konch and Sierra, Perez de la Cum.

In his canvases, the Corwa portrayed the greatest artists of Spain from Goya to Picasso. De Vega, Goigor, Kuevedo, Ruben Dario, Manuel Machada, Alberti, Garcia Lorca. He wrote about her the largest philosopher of the twentieth century Ortega-I-Gasset.

And now it is quite brief about how bulls for Bulls are prepared and how it happens – briefly because a detailed description would require tens of pages. Newborn velves of special breed begin life in the paradise, on pastures ranch. Shortly before they reach one year old age, they are branded by the mark of the ranch on the ear and on the sides. Then, when bulls grow up, horse shepherds begin with long sticks, screams and galloping around future fighters provoke them – and thus select the most aggressive.

One of the arguments of supporters of the Corrida – the preservation of this amazing breed of animals. Since the cultivation and content of their dearly incredibly, and the other use of these bulls to come up with difficulty, the prohibition of the Corrida will entail a complete extinction of the species. What, of course, the majority of the population of Spain will not be able to survive.

At the age of three (for the category of young bulls) and 4-6 (for adults), they are deprived of the driving life on pastures and put six in the pots. Each group of six bulls is designed for one fight. Before the fight, they are driven into special traps and transported to the destination. Not far from the arena every group produced in a special courtyard (Chikuero), fenced with strong fences with bullfshes. A few hours before the start of the fight, the veterinarians check (at a distance) of bulls. Then occurs "Apartment" – The group is divided into three pairs according to weight, power and size of bull horns. The draw is happening, as a result of which, each of the participants in Bimero gets "own" bull. Thus, the participant does not know at all exactly what bull, from which ranch and with what a temper will be on the day of the battle by his opponent.

Finally, the MIG is approaching the beginning of the Corrida. In front of him, ceremonyster with a long stick pins to the neck of a bull Cokard with heraldic colors ranch. This is the first pain. The gate of the pen is sprinkled, and the bull breaks into the arena, the bloody fun begins. Arena is filled with horseback picaders, bull with their peaks, bandyrilers throwing into it "Bandyrili" – Darts, accused by ribbons, driven into his Boca and Pull. Often all this is still mixed with intermediates "Toro Comico", performing their boffonads with a danger to life and even more annoying grooming bull. The public in the stands screams, waving his hands, makes a disassemble noise. Bull flows into rabies, and here it turns out his last single opponent, Toro-Matador. In Spanish "Matador" So simplicity "murderer", killing. He dances his incredible dance around the bull, teases him with a red flutter, rushes towards the horns and elusive movement goes away from impact. In the present, honest corrida, the fight occurs on equal. Invalid motion for Matador means at best injury, for a bull – death. A deadly game lasts, Matador does not give a bull to stop, he keeps the jealous public in a constantly growing excitation. It seems that the bull still will reach a person, the person is about to strike. But no, the vortex continues, foam falls out of the pasta of bull, his eyes are lit like coals, blood flows on the wounded sides. And Matador again and again makes his unthinkable jumping, bows and turns.

By the way, you need to know that bulls – Dalconics. They are annoyed at all not scarlet floss. In addition, they are very shortcuts, and some so-called Burriciegos are simply subwind. The figure of Matador with a developing launch is represented by him, probably, some kind of annoying and dangerous beast, from which you need to get rid of any way.

But here – the moment has come. Matador is an exact, the sword is stuffed with a hard movement. Bull falls, agonizing. His torment is over. Prescribed ceremonial movement Matador thanks the public and bull and removes. Troika mules dragging bull over blood covered sand to the exit of the arena. His carcass is fresh in a special room arena, destroyed on the part and the next day or sold at a very high price on the market, or donates to the hospital.

As far as I know, a stupid anecdote about American tourists in a restaurant, which is served very large bullish eggs in one day, and in another – smaller and clearly different origin – no more than a joke, even in part about the bull. Although tourists are told about bullish meat in many Spanish restaurants.

On different arena and in different countries, there are some differences in the corrida. For example, in southern France at night, on the eve of battle, riders with peaks drive bulls on the narrow streets of old towns like Nima. The public is the locals and visitors – while not sleeping, hanging out of windows, from trees, lampposts. The most desperate trying to grab the running bulls for tails. Sometimes it naturally ends with injury. Another time, in Arles, I saw "Bye the game" (Jeux de Boeufs), which undoubtedly had to like any of the most tary advocates of the rights of animals and human morality. In the arena, the adult bull was released, to the horn of which was a tricolor cokard, he began to sniff the sand in bewilderment, beat his posterior legs, look around around. Here, because of the barriers, several adult macho with special weapons jumped – like a caste – on the right hand. The task of them was to cut the cokard with a bullish story, without hiding the bull and, naturally, not affected by himself. After applause for the victory of one of the uncle of the bull, it was in the arena turned out to be "young" Bull, respectively, and his opponents were already years 18 years. Further both human and bullish age fell. It turned out ingenious: several very little calves were released into the arena, for the absence of horns, whose cokards were tied with ropes to foreheads – and "opponents" They were four or five-year-old kids, awkwardly dodged from just as unzipping bodies. Next to me on the bench sat couple with a hefty kudatta of the Pyrenean Shepherd. The dog looked at adult classes without interest, began to score when the young men took up, tightened, seeing the game of adolescents. And when children were in the arena – human and bullies – he, to the amazement of the owners, was ciganeous through a 2-meter barrier and began to bring herd to the feeling. He pounded the calves to the gate, collected the kids in a bunch, and all this – with a puppy delight. Arena broke out with applause, which may not have heard from the great Toreros in his century.

But still it should be remembered that even such bloodless fun are only in anticipation of Big Corrida. And I would not be surprised to find out that lovely children in multicolored T-shirts occur from families in which the carmino-gold outfit of the Matador is transmitted from generation to generation. Not every mother and not every father will send their offspring on the sand arena.

Remember the story of Hemingway about how one teen Pepe kills another pepe (and this name, a cut from Francisco, has long been smoking the fans of the Corrida) with the help of a chair with a tied knives tied to his legs. One of the oldest in Tavromakhi "simulators". And then – the sand is stained with blood, the horse picaders will touch the bull with insane eyes, the bull extends their lives for invaluable seconds or minutes, Torero dances his deadly dance, habitual to the ritual blood to the ancient pagans from Tira and Sidon, Kiossa and Cartagena.

The Spaniards created the Iconostasis of the Great Bykoboretsev. But the great bulls are not forgotten. Usually dies a horned and ruminant animal; If before death it makes feats – it enters its, bovine pantheon. And Spaniard (Frenchman, Catalon, Portuguese, Mexican, Venezuelec, whose eyes are flared by the name of manololte or Domingin) will add Malauno, coronary or almian.

Last tango

Mallauno, heavy dense-black bull with Ranch Don Manuel Garcia Aleas, beat so overgrowardly that after death he dragged around the arena three times, and his ears were the rarest case – the owner of the ranch was donated as award.

Corucano, a gloomy creature with Ranch Done José Eisinas, drove the picaders back to the gate of the Arena and before being 18 times with picked peaks and in the end the sword, killed six horses.

Almirante, mighty and phlegmatic bull, during the Corrida in Pasahaz in 1858 refused to fight, left the Arena, got to the city hall, climbed to the second floor and washed from there from the balcony to a perplexing public.

In 1877, Churrero broke out from the trap box, ran into the center of Madrid on the eve of a passionate Friday, killed six people and poured many other.

Melogromo, "The enemy of the monarchy", In 1878, rushed to the royal lie, Potted Alebardes, destroyed the royal coat of arms and banners and was shot by the royal guard.

Finally, Herbolario, "Pharmacian", Bull with the ranch of Countess Salleyarra: he, jumping through the barrier, gave a panic among the public. As a result, more than forty people were injured. There are bulls that, thanks to their incredible nobility (that is, readiness to fight, but failure to use "Black", demonic receptions) were left by Matadorami alive. It is worth thinking about this: Matador must demonstrate "Last Stick", crowd roars, bull scrolls and waits. And suddenly, Torroo lowers the sword, the bull and the audience is bowed and leaves. The first such bull in the arena in Seville turned out to be climbing with Ranch Don Anastasio Martin. He was poked with a peak 33 times, and he killed 11 horses. Matador apologized to him. Algariano, Rancho Hidalgo Barcker, on Feria in Jerez de la Frontera killed 19 horses and mule. He was glorified even to the end of the Corrida. And since 1955, in this city, during the Corrid, celebrating the feast of harvesting grapes, a rule was introduced, according to which different ranch compete among themselves in the rage and nobility of their bulls. The best bull is given life, and most importantly – the ability to spend it on fat pastures without a threat to be drunk in a drawer trap and released on bloody sand.

Recall the Colosseum and torment Lviv and gladiators. Passed century, languages ​​changed – from the vulgar Latin to Windows-95 – and everything remains the same. How to be here? Watch the Corrida, that is, you pay for your participation in it, or categorically refuse? I think everyone needs to solve himself. But it is worth remembering that Japan, the kingdom of microtechnologies, would cease to be without sweaty two-thousand smo wrestlers whispering in the corners of the clay parrot Archaic prayers. Spaniards will stop being the Spaniards without "Macchism" and Tavromakhi. And then – we all eat "Big Macs", Putting them "Koko", either deal with the construction of the next "Chuchhe" In the spirit of Marxism, Street Islam or any other self-sufficient and therefore more than the Corrida, dangerous idea.

And if you still want to find out what corrrow is – first feel the heavy smell of sweat and blood. Press in heaven: Perhaps the outlines of the clouds will be allowed to guess how a flylet will wave a flylet in a fraction of a second and what will make his opponent, primitive bull. Imagine yourself in their place, remember Goyuya, Gongor, Manolte, Domingino, enchanted foreigners like "Pope" Hamingway (or his opponent Confucianiza Ezru Pound, categorical enemy of Tavromakhi). In the event that you actually never ceased to be interesting, it is thumbnail to read several books – otherwise you risks to be in the role of silly tourists. Although, I repeat, to become an expert of the Corrida (to the number of which I do not count myself), you need to spend a lifetime.

Bibliography Corrida is quite extensive. Name only a few most interesting writings: José Abenamar Bergamin, "Philosophy of bulls"; Ramon Perez de Aian, "Politics and bulls"; Jose, "Pepe Hillo"; Delgado, "Taverchay or art fight with bulls"; Domingo Ortega, "The art of bullish battle" (with the HOSE Ortega-I-Gasset); Louis Lacraua, "Battle Bull. Zootechnical and psychological research"; NS. L. Lansberg, "Experience death".

Who wants to visit the Corrida opportunities a lot: only in Spain in the season, the Tavromachiya occurs almost every day. But again, some experience is required or consultation to see actually good Corrida, with good participants. In addition, it is worth choosing: what bulls you want to see – for example, the bloodthirsty monsters from the Ranch of Mura or more phlegmatic animals, say, from Ranch José Escobar Barilaro.

And outside of Spain, there are many corrid during the year – in Portugal, in France, in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, Guatemala.

But for the first acquaintance it is better to choose the Spanish Corrid. Ideally – in La Ronda.

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