Latest "White Spots" Planets
How quickly they disappeared into the era of great geographical discoveries and how reluctantly appear now. But even these rare discoveries are radically changed our idea of the existing world. Canyons and caves, mountains and lakes – it turns out, our planet keeps even a lot of secrets.
The longest planet river
|The source of Amazon|
Journalists called this discovery "The latest geographical discovery of the XX century". An expedition organized by the Catholic University of Lima and Peruvian Navy, led the famous traveler Yatesk Palkevich. It included glaciologists, hydro-elearators, topographers and military engineers. There were even two Russians among the participants: Traveler-Extreme Rimma Khairutdinova and Geographers Sergey Ushnurstsev.
Step by step, climbing up the river, the participants of the expedition got, finally, to its source, the stream of Apache, located on the high-mountain plain of Keuish in Peruvian Andes at an altitude of 5150 m. Thanks to this discovery, Amazon is now considered the longest river of Planet (7030 km). Before that, the record belonged to Nile (6852 km).
Palkevich said so about his discovery: "I often ask me about the principle of the question of the source of Amazon. Like, what’s the difference, a couple of meters to the right or a couple of meters left? First, this is not member, and secondly, I was hurt by the fact that in the era, when spacecraft transmit detailed photo images from other planets, we still have on Earth "black holes" and "White spots"".
Today, a natural reserve is created around the stream of Apache.
The oldest mountains of the earth
Researchers call this treated mountain range, located in the very center of the White Continent, Antarctic Alps, because in its size it resembles the greatest mountains of Europe: the length of the ridge is about 1300 km, width – from 200 to 500 km. Two its vertices are known: one height is 2990 m, and the other is 3390 m. From the last to the surface – 600 m ice.
The mountains were opened by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition in 1958 and are named after Soviet Geophysics Grigory Hambursheva. However, in 2008-2009, when the International Expedition Agap (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province) spent seismiamonding of this mining system, as well as its radiosondrization from aircraft, it turned out that these mountains have an extraordinarily cut relief, that is, look like a young Alps type mining system, although are the oldest mountains on earth. In the mountains of Hambursv, there was a lot of nameless pointed mountain peaks and deep gorges, on the bottom of which rivers flow. All this forces scientists to assume that the icing of Antarctica occurred, according to geological standards, almost instantly and the mountains were simply melted in ice.
Folded lake with the most ancient microorganisms on the planet
The existence of this underground, or rather, the Soviet scientists were predicted at the end of the 1950s: glaciologist Igor Zotikov and geomorphologist Andrei Kapitsa, the younger brother of the famous TV host Sergey Kapitsa. But it was possible to detect this lake only in the mid-1990s using seismic sensing by the method of reflected waves.
Freshwater Lake East is in Antarctica, near the Russian Antarctic Station "Vostok". Its dimensions are approximately 250 per 50 km, and the depth is about 1200 m. The average temperature of the water in it is about +7 ° C. So scientists expect to detect living organisms in it. The problem was that over the lake – about 4 km of ice and it was in isolation from the rest of the world at least half a million years. The drilling of the well in order to achieve the surface of the lake began in 1989 by the forces of Soviet, French and American scientists. On February 5, 2012 at a depth of 3769.3 meters, a boura with a treated lake occurred and the first samples of his water were taken. Drilling lasted 23 years!
On March 11, 2013, scientists of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of Roshydromet (Aania) reported that unknown science of bacteria were found in the water samples of Lake East. Also among the microorganisms contained in the water of the lake East, the parasites of fish were discovered, which is an indirect confirmation of the existence in the lake of more complex organisms. This statement passed unnoticed by the general public, despite the fact that the water of the East lake may be similar to the composition of the water of satellites of satellites of Jupiter – Europe, Ganyand and Callisto, as well as Saturn – Encelada.
If the opening of the origin of the Amazon is called the "latest geographical discovery of the XX century", the opening of the lake East is undoubtedly the last great geographical discovery in the history of mankind.