Lebanon: in ancient biblos
The Lebanese town of Jubale can be listed twice in the Guinness Book of Records. His story began 7 thousand years ago with a small settlement of fishermen. Over time, the Phoenician Maritime Port of Bible (Biblical Gabal) has grown here, which is considered the most ancient in the world in the world’s permanent city.
And where is the port, there and trade. To help merchants who wanted to make transactions and write accounts as quickly as possible, Biblus scribes, (Greek word "Biblos" Means Papyrus – the goods that feckled to Greece through the merchants of Bibl) developed a simplified letter of writing consisting of 22 characters. Greek and the Romans and the most disseminated east and west, it became the immediate predecessor of many alphabets. And another small record associated with Lebanon. Biblical cities Tir, Sidon, Biblos, as well as the famous Baalbek, has long attracted tourists from many countries. However, Russians with Lebanon have not been lucky for a long time. In the era of stagnation abroad alone were not allowed, and shortly before the restructuring in Lebanon began fire. They quickly turned into a religious Christian-Muslim war, which continued as much as 16 years. Finally, Syrian troops were introduced into Lebanon, and it helped to pay off the fire. So for many years about visiting this country could not be speech. And since 1991 in Lebanon began "Restoration of the national economy", and tourists again became welcome guests.
Fortunately, in a pre-war 1960, Lebanon joined the Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Values in the event of an armed conflict. So the local ancient ruins for 16 years of war were not turned into ruins and debris.
. In order to go to Lebanon, naturally, you need an entry visa. But the Russian wanderer in the Lebanese embassy politely refuses: you need an invitation, everything, as in previous times. However, there is a small trick. It turns out that if you have a Syrian visa in your passport, then Lebanese gives automatically, without unnecessary formalities. After all, the Syrian troops still stand in Lebanon, and what is there to play independence! And in the Syrian Embassy – no problem: in the morning we pay 30 dollars, and after lunch, come for a visa, this is true, provided that you were not in Israel, and your passport with "Clean biography".
And in antiquity, the biography of Biblos with Israel was connected quite closely. In the Bible, the Phoenicians are described as talented carpenters and radiators of ivory. They made beams for the temple of King Solomon and saw them with decorations of gold and ivory.. The land on which the Phoenician state was located was fertile, but is small in the area. That’s why. Residents of the country who did not have the opportunity to engage in agriculture, were looking for happiness in other areas of activity, for example, were excellent destroyers or lucky merchants. Masters from Biblos used a good reputation in the shipowner Tira – the city lying on the south coast of Lebanon. In a lively dash (contemporary. Sur) have been "all sorts of sea ships and their ships" (IEZEK. 27.9). However, ship repair work" They were given in the hands of shakers from Biblos: "Older from Gorev and his experts were with you to close your breakfasts" (IEZEK. 27.9). The Phoenicians have long been distinguished by the enterprise, but their current successors – Lebanese will not yield to them in this.
. In the Beirut Airport Events develop by classic scheme. Intermediaries rush to fresh newcomer and invite a taxi parking. The driver will take place – "Total" 20 dollars. "There is no bus to the city and will not, – Doktnit "master". You can stand here at least an hour and make sure that" And I do not need to stand here. Raise to the flight to the departure hall. Passenger minibus is quickly filled with local people. I go to the shofor. "In town? – Before. – How much does the ticket cost? – 30 cents".
In the area of the Beirut Seaport, I begin to look closely to the signs. But the driver "Slane of the gutter", What exactly needs to be a Russian wanderer. He stops a pickup at a dilapidated building, next to which the shield with the inscription: "Hotel", Somewhere here passed "Green Line", Separated during the war Beirut on Christian and Muslim parts. Until now, many ruins do not restore – the owners have no initial capital. From the balcony, they make hands: Invite the client at the post. Price acceptable: 3 dollars for bed. True, the room has other guests, but we, grew up in the world of hostels and communal, not get used. But nearby, under the overpass, bus station, from where buses go to Biblos and Tripoli.
Before the sunset, you can walk around the city. Now in Lebanon there is a permanent war for peace. On the streets of Beirut patrols with automata, near hot spots – armored personnel carriers, block walls, sand bags, wire, fores. So power is planned violence.. And now on the cry "Allah Akbar!" Machine does not shoot, but politely answer: "Truly Akbar!" But in the evening, it is better not to go to the streets, and for a cup of tea to refresh information about the ancient biblos.
5000 years before.NS. – First settlement in the western part of the cape. 3200 years before.NS. – Construction of stone houses. 3000-2800 years before.NS. – Number of urban civilization. Settlement of the entire cape, construction of urban fortifications and the creation of a water supply system; Biblos becomes an intersection of trade routes between Egypt and Mesopotamia. The golden age of Biblos which came on the 3rd millennium BC.NS., was inextricably linked with the history and religion of Egypt. There were many temples in the city, which worshiped the same gods as the Egyptians. Pharaohs were sent to Lebanon for building materials for their ships and behind the resinous wood necessary for mummification. In the huge temple dedicated to Balat Gebal (he was reconstructed up to Roman rule), vessels were found with the names of Pharaohs. They testify to the worship of the Egyptian rulers of the Phoenician goddess Astarta, which was revered here for many centuries. The remains of another temple dedicated to the male deity and the destroyed fire in 2150 g. to N.NS., as well as residues "Large residence – a huge luxury villa – are evidence of the prosperity of the city during this period. So the time and influence of different cultures imposed an indelible imprint on the city of Bible – the shopping center of the ancient world.
In the morning right from the hotel I descend under the overpass and heading to the bus. It turns out that the direct bus to Biblos does not happen and must be sitting on the one that follows in Tripoli. But it is not necessary to worry: the driver will tell you where to go. I go to the bus, crying 1 dollar, and we are talking on the road. Beirut stands on the caution, outstanding in the Mediterranean Sea, and we enhance the bay, admiring the viewed panorama. Green hills lit by the sun, gently descend to the sea, and above, in a closure with clouds, white ridge, covered with snow.
My neighbor rises and goes to the exit. He goes to Biblos, which means that I also leave. At the bridge over a mountain stream, the bus slows down. No bus stalls, all quickly, on the go. To the fortress – under the bridge and down to the right. It is impossible to get lost: you just need to go under the slope and be sure to go to the sea.
I go on search of hotels. I would something easier for me not to break away from the masses. Looking along the coast, I understand that I made "puncture". Cheap hotels here. Local people in Biblos do not stop at the post, – and after all, before Beirut, ride is less than an hour. near the ancient facilities there are two hotels designed on rich white tourists: it "Ahiram" and "Biblos at sea". Music manager, sipping like a well-fed cat, lazily calls the price: $ 60 per day. Yes, as the other pretty talked, "This thing is stronger "Faust" Goethe. "
I go along the fortress wall, mentally dealing with options. There is no night, you must either go back to Beirut or get to Tripoli. And then back in Biblos, I will come back without booting, light. But first need to have a snack. I go to the first cafe. Young Lebanets is polite and warned. Just in case I ask him: is there any cheap hotel in biblos and some cheap hotel? He did not hear anything about it, but try to figure out. It begins a long conversation on the phone, but it seems there are no chance. suggest settle in some coastal "Beach Resort", intended wool" With planned western "Sheep".
Suddenly, Russian speech hears behind his back: "Can I help with anything?". I answer with a baking house: "Unless advice". See you. Vlada -"Countryman in the square" – Right from St. Petersburg. She decided to go to Lebanon after August "Owl" 1998. Married Lebanese, and now they keep a cafe in Biblos near tourist routes. Enjoy the world and peace: such a thing as "hitting" and "roof" Here do not know. My task is simplified: per day you can explore Biblos, dine "at their own", and in the evening to get to Tripoli. I leave someone from the hospitable owners and go to inspect the town.
Narrow winding street begins in the center and passes through the whole city. Little alleys looping between houses. A plot of urban wall has been preserved here, which defended the city from Sushi. Visiting the medieval part of the city – the first stage of traveling to the past Biblos.
In 638, Muslims captured Biblos, and he again became a small fishing port. In 1104, the Crusaders selected the city from Arabs. Bible becomes the hold of the leader of the knights – they were the Crusader Raymont de Saint-Gilles. In 1109, a Bible (Zibel – as the city of Crusaders called) Family Embriano from Genoa.
I pass by the elegant Baptistery of the Church of John the Baptist (XII in.) It is built in the Romanesque style and once was the cathedral of Zhibel. This temple recalls that for some time the city was under the rule of the Genoese. Standing nearby small Orthodox church refers to the Byzantine era. The rocky soap, which was built by the Bible, was a natural fortification from the sea. Go down to the harbor. Despite the strong wind and a cool wave, walking the hemp ride tourists along the coast. I wonder the ancient harbor. Fishing boats pierce. So it was here and hundreds, and thousands of years ago. After all, the bibl was the place of intersection of trade routes. In the east, trading was carried away with Mesopotamia, in the south – with Egypt, in the north with the Hittte Empire, and in the West – by the sea – with the prosperous civilization of Crete.
However, in the history of the bibl there were sad pages: about 2150 g. to N.NS. amorites burn bibl. But around 1950. to N.NS. City, temples and fortifications are restored. Communication with Egypt. Trade with such distant lands as the Caucasus and Crete. And in 1725. to N.NS. Nomadic Asian Hykss tribes invade Egypt. Bible development freezes, and his harbor will empty.
1580. to N.NS.: The Egyptians are expelled by Gyks and turn the film into their protectorate, thus protecting the Phoenician civilization. Trading in the Bible resumes and flourishes, and, it means, it becomes lively in the harbor.
Today in a quarter, adjacent ancient port, appeared something new. On the facade of one of the houses Signboard: "Honorary Consul Mexico", And nearby – a restaurant with a Spanish name "Moligna" ("mill"). Why is the consul to climb such a distance? maybe during the war years here was not so dangerous as in Beirut? (Poles, for example, was not lucky there: their real estate" in Beirut was destroyed, and there is no money for construction. So sticking in the middle of the site, fenced to the wire to the best times, the sign with the inscription "Property of the Polish state").
Since the Bible for a long time was the crossroads of various civilizations, in 1960 (our era!) There was an idea to create an international center there, whose activities would contribute to the dialogue between religions and cultures. In the pre-war 1974, UNESCO supported this project and included him in the program of the Philosophy Division called "International Center for Humanities and Development in Bible". The purpose of the center was to "Examine a modern man, his relationship with nature and society and the problems set by the development in different aspects". And soon after that, in Lebanon began "events". Durable.
Biblos pride – archaeological and architectural reserve, where the buildings of various eras and cultures. The old part of the pride occupies more than 10 hectares. The majestic and massive castle of Crusaders rises above it. His walls did a lot on their "century". The castle is located on the site of the structure built in the 9th century Egyptian rulers from the Fatimid dynasty. Stones of destroyed Phoenician and Roman monuments served material for its construction. Fortress with spacious vaulted rates began to build crusaders in the XII century. However, in 1187, the Arabic commander Salah-Ad-Dean I again captures a bibl, destroys the castle of the Crusaders and demolitions. In 1199, the Crusaders returned | a rickel under their power and began to build a castle again. And although from 1266, after the departure of the Crusaders, Bible has lost its importance again, the castle was constantly strengthened and rebuilt over a number of centuries. From the top platform of the castle, the places of numerous archaeological excavations of the ancient city, which grew up on the spot of the ancient settlements by replacing each other. From the nearby minaret heard of Muzzin, inviting Muslims to the midday namaz. From the Church of St. John comes the bell ringing. Nearby – field of red poppies.
In 1860, French writer and historian Joseph Ernest Renan held the first excavations in Biblos. Among the housing of the copper century, clay vessels were found, decorated with fingerprints of marine shells and dating from the 6-5th millennium.NS., Large burial bins and jugs containing grain, food, weapons and jewelry. The most ancient dwellings of Bible were ordinary huts. Houses with stone walls began to build only at the end of the 4th millennium BC.NS.