Legends of the cemetery per lashine
They say there are lovers of cemetery tourism. I do not belong to them. Although the ancient advice "Memento Mori", Of course, fair, but usually prefer to study attractions that cause more positive emotions. And when it comes to talk about visiting such sad places with a cultural and cognitive goal, I remember the anecdote "Vasya, where you were?" – "at the cemetery" – "What, someone died?" – "You do not imagine, they all died there". Let the blackboard, but humor helps not fall into the gloomy mood.
At first I noticed that the cemeteries use in Paris – in addition to their direct destination, of course – not only as a tourist object. They can not be better suited for any godly affairs, for example, to feed the hungry. And not just to give a penny (according to the familiar servant of the Moscow Don Cemetery, one of the old women, sitting at the gate, has safely built a two-story cottage for himself), but to really feed and specifically help. These are engaged in social services and funds.
And then it happened that the group of buddies and I gathered on the pen lashiness, just see. I thought: "What is the difference where to spend the warm September day with good people?" And decided not to give up. On the eve of the fun birthday, and among the guests there was a former countryman, a long-lasting Parisian, which, as it turned out, knows this famous cemetery along and across. And not only remembers a bunch of historical, biographical facts and Baeks about those who are buried there, but also a sign with the former director of the local crematorium. Actually, this director himself is already resting at one of the plots, next to the place of his work, and before, according to our countryman, they loved with him a small company to gather at the graves, walk and talk, sipping a vino, to all sorts of relevant topics. So far so that when, buried the director, they were going to sneak sadly at home, the lawyer suddenly stopped the whole company with the words that each of them was mentioned in the will, and right there, in place, read the text. The deceased did not forget to leave all sorts of pleasant little things in memory – to whom the book, who souvenir. And about our buddy, approximately the following was said there: "Knowing the great interest of my friend to the literature and also being her amateur, I leave him a unique value. Now I can confess that one day I took advantage of my official position for personal purposes: after the cremation of the famous writer N dumped himself some of his dust. Wanted to my friend a capsule with the ashes of our beloved author". The name was uttered, but here I will not call him, to spare feelings of other admirers, in Russia with the work of this writer familiar.
- Social service distributes free chowder at the entrance to the cemetery per lashine
- Cemetery is located on a hilly area
Here we moved from the metro Gambetta to such a bike, to go through the cemetery from top to bottom, past the solid building of that very crematorium built in the Unhovitantic style in 1887., And then go to the subway Pere Lachaise or the neighboring PHILIPPE-AUGUSTE station, next to which is the main entrance. There in flower stalls sell the cemetery plan, but if from there, from below, rise, then it just does not have enough strength to bypass and a third of territory. Per Lashhesis occupies 44 hectares and now it is about 77 thousand sections.
It was founded on May 21, 1804. On the territory of the Jesuita Garden as a new type of cemetery, not a church, and urban, in which, according to the plan of architect A.Bronary, an English park should be combined and a place where you can completely cut off, immersed in our thoughts. Before in the garden there was a house of one of the clergymen – Jesuita, the father of De La Shez, approximate to the throne of Louis XIV. Name "Father Lashez" Passed behind the Eastern Cemetery of Paris. Initially, Per Lashez did not use much popularity, it was in the suburbs, and to attract attention to him, a successful "Marketing stroke": There were reburied the dust of the Moliere, Lafontaine, as well as Abelian and Eloisa. The names of famous medieval heretic philosopher-theologian, castrated enemies, and his student, then shorn a nun, has long been a household name, but their passion and loyalty still nourish the imagination and love to visit the grave of a pair of lovers.
For all its specificity Pere Lachaise is the largest and most beautiful park in Paris, there is growing 5300 trees – maple, ash, chestnut, sycamore, cedar, beech, linden, acacia, walnut and other species. But it is no less like a huge city, with wide avenues, avenues, streets, a maze of alleys and dead ends. And, as in the city, there are buildings, only the beautiful palaces – a tomb, a more modest "Cottage" – crypts, apartment buildings – columbarium. Perhaps, Pere Lachaise is possible to meet all the architectural and decorative styles, from Gothic to modern times.
- One of the old family tomb
- Memorial to victims of the Nazi concentration camps "Buchenwald"
We started dating a celebrity with a columbarium. It is so high that stretches along the wall iron staircase with a gallery so that you can rise to the niches that even his head thrown back, do not consider. We are primarily interested in people whose lives have been closely linked with Russia. For example, Nestor Makhno, a prominent revolutionary anarchist hero of the civil war, has repeatedly devoted former associates Bolsheviks and died in Paris almost in poverty. Or Isadora Duncan, the wife Esenina, great dancer, popiratelnitsa foundations not only in art but also in personal relationships. About her absurd death in Nice on the scarf wound around the wheel of the car and choking her, saying so far. Around the commemorative plates we saw written and scrawled the words of love and gratitude, mainly in English – Americans remember her compatriot. Near niche with the ashes of her children, Deirdre and Patrick, they were killed 14 years earlier with the nanny of evil chance – also in the car, which fell into the Seine.
- Niche in the columbarium with dust Nestor Makhno
- Around the board with the name of Isadora Duncan – the words of gratitude from her fans
Family marble mausoleum Russian Prince Demidov – one of the most luxurious buildings in the Pere Lachaise, but I do not believe that, if the Princess Elizabeth bequeathed a lot of money to those who spend the night in her crypt. In general, Slavic names are found in different parts of the cemetery. Touching heart made of small pebbles laid out on the tomb of Guillaume Apollinaire de Kostrovitsky, the founder of modern poetry, follower of cubism, author of erotic fiction and the term "surrealism". Legends fanned his whole life, from birth: he was found in Rome as a foundling, and only a few months later a Polish mother recognized the child. Apollinaire constantly mystified his origins, immediately after his death reached the chain of unexplained phenomena and deaths of people close to him, and he began to be a friend as a ghost.
By the way, about paranormal phenomena: in one of the graves, we first did not understand why the woman standing next to a gravestone concentration puts a piece of paper. But looking closer, they saw that she had her "charges", communicating with the spirit of the late: on the stone was engraved the name of Allan Kardec, the founder of spiritualism.
- Modest tomb of the great Apollinaire
- "Charging" the grave of Alan Kardec
Our countryman, a voluntary guide, knew perceive these stories and general atmosphere of the cemetery can be difficult. Therefore, he prudently provided himself with a bottle of good local brandy and a glass of silver. And to them to remember from these liqueur glasses, it was worthy of many great names enumeration would take several pages. We paid tribute to Balzac, Delacroix, Alphonse Daudet, Beaumarchais, Gericault, Modigliani, Edith Piaf, Oscar Wilde, spouses Simone Signoret and Yves Montana, human rights activist and Soviet dissident Alexander Ginzburg, the actress Sarah Bernhardt, Baron Haussmann – modernizer of Paris, in general, many until enough cognac.
But Père Lachaise was not always such a peaceful place, not once heard the shots among the graves. After removal of Napoleon in 1814, students of military schools took the defense here to reflect the attack of Russian detachments, but the forces were unequal: the attackers struck the trees who served them by the shelter, and successfully led fire from there, and when they captured the hill, quickly secured the position – became the camp right among the graves. Even more tragic events of 1871, Paris Commune. It was here that the last battles of the civil war went. All communes were killed by government troops (versilians), their corpses were dropped into a common grave, part was shot at the wall, which is now called a wall of communations, and some of the dead brought here from the streets of Paris – only 1018 bodies found the eternal peace on this cemetery.
Contrary to my ideas, a multifigure bas-relief "Wall of the victims of the revolution", Outdoor in 1909., is not at all on this wall, and not far from Per Lashhesis, in the square. In local legend, it was built there, for the fence, especially in order to "pilgrims" (including the Bolsheviks who loved to arrange the Wall of Maevka) did not shine, did not sang the revolutionary songs in the place of rest and did not pull the grass on the nearest lawn. Over time, near the place of execution in the cemetery, a whole plot of graves of revolutionaries, socialists and communists grew up. Jean-Baptiste Cleman was buried in one of them, in 1867 he wrote the famous and wild-wonderful song "Cherish time", from which (you do not know – you won’t guess!) Socialistic subtext. My friends did not hear her, so I had to, like a Bolshevik, singing them one verse and chorus directly at the monument to the author. Probably good that I no longer remembered, after all, it is awkward to announce such a place.
- The monument to Molver resembles an antique theater
- Wall of Communards on the Cemetery of Per Lashez
The revolutionary moods of that time touched even the young journalist Viktor Nuara, not at all opposition, but just a famous scandalousist and heart. On the eve of his wedding in 1870, he quarreled, "they say that on the basis of literature, and not politics at all, – with Pierre, Napoleon’s nephew, who also distinguished by irrepressible temper, and he shot him. But thousands of citizens who outraged such a funeral on the cemetery "Arbitration of the second empire", And the murder of Noura served as an additional reason for the union of supporters of the commune. However, real legends began later. It is unknown to whom it occurred that you can get rid of infertility, impotence, frigidity or undivided love, if you kiss the gravestone on the lips, put in the cylinder flower and lose a good outstanding causal place. Apparently, the more modest touch Viktor Noura for the shoes, however, and the width polished shines, and the protruding parts of the face, and in the cylinder I found a photo of some virgin, format as documents. The authorities have already desperately put the fence around the monument, it is stably breaking.
Another bike about journalism and politics we heard when I was surprised to find a grave. newspapers. Read the name on it "Yumat", But our buddy hurried to clarify that the former central newspaper of the French Command, and now simply "Close to Ne" Published as before, and the grave is such a specific reflection of the communist idea. One of the main editors at one time decided that the overall burial for employees of his publication with a single tombstone, without mentioning names, ranks and ranks, is not only ideologically true, but also economically beneficial: the land on the per lashness dear. Gray Granite Plate was ordered. And the residues of the economical commandress had enough for a tombstone monument for themselves, he was put on a personal grave when it was time. Legends, legends.
- Monument to the scandalous journalist Viktor Nuaru
- Tombstone "Yumat"
In a special list of historical monuments, many graves of feathers are listed, poets, writers, artists, composers, actors, military, politicians, scientists are buried in them – many of those who amounted to France’s glory. Famous sculptors worked on the creation of tombstones. One of them struck us with its originality: a basket was depicted on the pedestal, full of potatoes, and something resembling a moonshine apparatus. It turned out that this is a monument to Antoi-Auguste Parmerty, the famous agronoma, chemist and pharmacist. He put a lot of effort so that in hungry years to convince the French in the benefits of potatoes and prove that he does not at all cause leprosy. The progressive Louis XIV supported the scientist and in his own example, inspired subjects, that the unspoken tubers are suitable not only for feeds of pigs: outfit "King Sun" Decorated potato flower. Among the many achievements, the Frenchmen could not notice his contribution to the development of winemaking and even on the tombstone depicted a grape vine. We also appreciated this significant contribution – once again poured French brandy in a glass.
Past the south-western wall of the cemetery passes the street with the romantic name Rue du Repos – Peace Street (Similar neighborhood causes a desire to add a word "eternal"). There is a high stone wall is obscured on top of a barbed wire. The city authorities were forced to take such a measure, so that, protecting this very eternal peace, prevent the poet fans and the musician Jim Morrison, who died in Paris in 1971, wadded to his grave in the clock when the entrance is closed. Endless orgies of hippies and drug addicts, syringes, adjacent monuments, written by quotes from the songs of the famous group The Doors, – they say, the cult of her leader reached Per Lashez to the failed, in 1981, even stolen from the grave of Morrison’s sculptural head. Especially wild, all this looked in the cemetery, where Chopin, Bizet, Bellini, Rossini, Crazer and other famous composers and musicians were buried. But the interest in the personality of the rock star and the reasons for his mysterious death do not subside: on the grave we saw fresh flowers, candles, leaflets with lyrics, letters of love, addressed to the idol, even small souvenirs. Fans and simply interested in behalf of themselves calmly, maybe because of the camcord cells installed somewhere nearby, but it seems that this is the most visited place on everything per lashiness.
- Potatoes on the monument A.-O.Parmerty
- Jim Morrison’s grave is always in colors
Of the more fresh burials, the French are especially distinguished by pompous and pretty tasteless marble necropolis with inscriptions in Chinese, they occupy a whole quarter. The right to be buried on feathers only residents of Paris or died in Paris people have. Although the Chinese in the city are quite a lot, the abundance of such graves remains a mystery to us. However, having bought a place, you can soar there your loved ones, if you prove the relationship, no matter where they died. A piece of land size of 2 kV.m costs about 11 thousand euros, but renting 10, 30 or 50 years will cost a smaller amount. However, the cost of the Chinese necropolia homes themselves is difficult to submit.
Cognac ended, our forces were also on the outcome. We went out through the main gate and found themselves on Menilmontan Boulevard, where cars went and ordinary, normal life. The impression was that I just had a very close touch with the history of France, even deeper I appreciated the greatness of French history and culture and better felt the Bunctric Spirit of this country, which was always the engine of creativity. Although everyone who lie on the lanera, for a long time not rebellious. Memory and legend remained about them.