Let there be something to be!
The fact that in Montenegro in recent years few people visited is quite understandable. Although its territory is directly affected by the Yugoslav War, she, together with Serbia, what remained from Yugoslavia was in the international blockade. There was almost impossible to enter. Now, fortunately, the war ended, the sanctions were removed and again you can visit this mysterious, almost a mysterious country, located not in the Himalayas or in Oceania, and next to Italy, in three hours of summer from Moscow. The illogical phrase, made in the title – the National Slogan of Chernogortsev, nominated by their chief hero, Prince Peter II Petrovich.
I found myself in Montenegro in the summer of 94 and since then I dream to return. Although, I warn in advance, country "on an amateur".
First a bit of history. Without it, Montenegro, TsRN, Montutengro understand even more difficult. In the second century to p.NS. She entered the Roman Province of Dalmatia. Then belong to Byzantium. In the XI century, the state of Zeta was formed. Then the Venetians and Turks argued for his coastal part. Montenegrins are very proud because their country is the only part of the Balkan, which has never completely obeyed the Turks. However, the case is perhaps the fact that she is especially especially necessary for Osmans. Turks fought for the ports and coast coves. Wild, fruitless highlands, where these horses sat, they were little interested. And the mountains – from time to time went down, robbed the city, after which they were driven back. Being the people energetic and courageous, the Montenegrins could not be satisfied with episodic skirmishes with Osmans, so it was highly effective. But after a while they realized that if it goes further, then the legendary Chernogorsk courage and honor could remain without media.
Representatives of the rival clans thought, thought and chose the boss themselves. True, unlike the Russians, they cost without foreign princes, and found in their own medium. In 1697, the Dynasty of Princess-Bishops Petrovichi. The first was given, his nephew followed him – the throne was generally transmitted from uncle to nephew. Amazing method of reign sometimes gave rise to the name of Montenegro "Orthodox Tibet". Although, in my opinion, it is rather "Orthodox Checky".
Rules at the beginning of the XIX century Peter I Petrovich Lesche makes the first steps to Europeanization. His heir Peter II travels to Russia, writes poems (his "Gorskyger" – For Chernogortsev something like "Divine Comedy", "Evgenia Onegin" and "Gamletta" At the same time), Pushkin translates, brings the first billiard in the country and struggles with blood revenge. The next one, Danilo I, removes the Episcopian San and becomes the first worldly prince. His successor, Nicholas I, receives formal independence from the Turks, takes the title of king; However, in 1915, Austrians capture the country, and the king emigrates. In 1918, Montenegro is part of Yugoslavia. During World War II, the countries occupy the Italians. Now she is part "Malaya Yugoslavia".
I got there rather strangely. In the historical capital of Montenegro, Cetini, was organized by international artistic Biennale under a very strange slogan – "See in the dark". It was invented by Nikolai Petrovich, the heir of the Montenegrin throne, the humble Paris architect Monsieur Nicolas Petrovik. Moving off the coast of the Seine in the Montenegrin Orlinic Nest, Monsieur Petrovik becomes a prince Nikhai. Human respect for the local inhabitants in the blood, and it is necessary to pay tribute to the prince-architect: his psyche has a strong, split personality is not observed.
So, I was one of the members of the Russian delegation to this most Biennale. UN sanctions were still in full strength, and for the trip there was required a special permission of this organization. And the journey was special. First on a military vehicle belonging to the company "Pan-Ukraine" (Pilots in dirty shirts, training pants and slippers, metal shops along the fuselage, bucket instead of the toilet) from Vribov through Kiev in Skopla, Macedonia. Obviously artists and journalists for "Pan-Ukraine" were an unusual cargo, it seems that there are more often faced with Transnistrian Cossacks. Then – a number of bus ride through Macedonia, Kosovo field, mountains and valleys, past numerous checkpoints, barbed wires and white Oon tanks. And back – the same manner. Western participants delivered a more humane, direct flight SWISS AIR from Paris to the Albanian capital Tirana, which is not far from Cetini. However, some of them, Albanians managed to digish suitcases. And one American artist of Russian origin so sought to Montenegro, which did a three-day travel on the route New York – Bucharest – Timisoara – Belgrade – Cetini.
Ancient capital "Orthodox Chechnya" – The place is quite strange and charming. The formal capital of the country located on 13812 kV. km of mountainous terrain and having a population in half a million people, is Podgorica, former Titograd, located in the valley and is a sad settlement like Khimk-Hovina. But Cetina remains the heart of Montenegro. It is located on Highlands, 15 km from the Adriatic, toy town – only about 12 thousand inhabitants. Four-five streets, many cafes, planenes and walnuts, several churches, bazaar. Amazes a unthinkable number of large and pompous buildings for such a town. The fact is that after the legal acquisition of Montenegro independence, the country has become the place of important geopolitical games, all major countries have opened the embassy here. And built buildings for them. In addition, there is a royal palace, quite modest, another palace – "Floy", that is "Blue Palace", Government building – "Vladin House", theatre – "Zetin House", and "Billha" – Building specially built by Peter II for the Billiard brought to them.
Since there are no more organs in Cetina, then the embassies and other are used for museums and exhibition halls, and when there were almost no tourists, it was not used almost in any way. In the Museum of the Tsarist Palace, you can admire enough barbaric ceremonial clothing, dyed half-sand, semi-European furniture, portraits of those who were awarded, and completely incredible Mausers and Revolvers, completely rolled silver, pearl, turquoise, crystal and yashma. For Chernogorstsev, as for Caucasians, the weapon was an integral part of the life, and having a passion for beauty and brilliance, they were pleased to decorate weapons in every way. The king had the opportunity.
In the Boulder, something like a historical museum, in a Vladina-house – like ethnographic. In the Russian Embassy – Academy of Arts. At the time of Biennale, all the premises turned into exhibition halls – all the visitors did not have enough. I do not know how the situation was with tourism before the war and I think that now he is being upgraded, but two years ago it was almost empty. To such an extent that it was difficult to buy at least some tourist booklets or books on the country’s history. The only thing that managed to detect is the yellowed editions of the early 70s. With books in Cetina in general interesting. There are two bookstores in the city, but neither in any other books, with the exception of several school textbooks, do not trade. Exclusively erases, buttons and pencils. Montenegrins are terribly proud that one of the first – in 1494 – printed a book, church "Okey". Are proud and the fact that then the lead set had to be poured into bullets in order to shoot from Basurman. Bullets, of course, did not return back, so that there are still difficulties with a typography and nearby difficulties arise. At the same time, the only industrial enterprise discovered by me in the city turned out to be a printing house.
In addition, there is a monastery in Cetina, the center of the local spiritual life and pilgrimage. He is very beautiful, but his main attraction is a unique relic – hand. John the Baptist, that is, it is the one that he baptized Jesus Christ. Previously, she was in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin and fell into Cetini after the revolution, with Russian emigrants. She is stored in the ark in the cathedral, and if a group of visitors is going to five people, then the priest – and often the local Metropolitan himself – takes out her from the cover and blesses those who came.
There is another tourist exhibit, another era and orientation. At first I did not even understand what it is: a glass pavilion of meters ten at ten, inside which some gray jets, bugs and deepening. In addition, the glasses were pretty dust. Looking around, I saw a detailed one – with individual houses and trees – the Relief Card Montenegro. As it turned out, her Austrians who seek all the world wars. Why – not quite clear. Perhaps they just had nothing to do.
In general, Tiny Cetina, despite some household inconveniences (existed, in any case, two years ago) – very pleasant and placing town. Even in the summer heat thanks to the mountain climate here is cool. Around – Wonderful Majestic Landscapes, Blue Mountain Chains, Horses Covering "Cetinisky Field". Mount Titanic, at the 60s, the Titanic, Egyptian monument was built in the 60s – Mausoleum Peter II. Sea is very near, half an hour drive around the picturesque mountain road. Under the side and the huge wadarest lake, where the border with Albania passes.
Life in the town of quiet and semi-mederenenskaya. Day it concentrates in "Kafani", koi great, incomprehensible for such a small settlement set. They are sitting in them by the pastmen, sipping coffee with ice mineral water, sometimes miss the raymy – grape vodka – or a cup of wine. Smoking cigarettes, discuss football and political news, play chess or cards. Look at passersby, greet – here everyone knows. In the bazaar – many vegetables and fruits, lamb mascaras, smoked and dried ham. Although Turkish, Eastern influence here and felt, but there is no hill and obsession. On the side streets, in the shadow of planenes, old people are sitting on the chairs.
In the evening, from seven to ten, the time of young people begins, which is a lot of. Boys and girls pour out the main street called Italian manner "Corso". And begin to walk by couples (girl with a girl, a young man with a young man) there – back, and very fast. To rush to them clearly nowhere, and the whole street is just a few hundred meters. Here you see how strict and the patriarchals of morals. Maiden dressed very "Sexy", nothing will be omitted by young romans or venetian. Guys too – on the selection. In general, I must say that the Montenegrins in the mass of the beautiful people, it seems that special selection work was carried out. But these couples, running past each other, do not allow touch and do not even come into conversation. Only exchange ramp, but very meaningful glances. Family for Montenegrin – Holy. The submool reputation is extremely difficult to correct. Here everyone knows everyone.
Having completed on the Corso running, some of the youth, apparently, the most advanced and financially secured, spreads across several "Youth" Caphanes with pop and rock music. Usually, the local, Serbian pop, differs from our domestic and light asian raid on the cassettes here.
And so every day, in any case, in the summer.
There is a five-star in the city "PARK-HOTEL-CETINJE". The huge hotel was built in the 70s, during the heyday of tourism in Yugoslavia, for all the rules of expensive international hotel business. During the war, naturally, the owners of the company "PARK-HOTEL-CETINJE" could not follow what was happening, tourism almost froze and five star "Palace" acquired a few surreal flare. But I am sure that now it is correct. On the same days, when I was there, there were no televisions in the rooms, there were difficulties with towels, and sometimes – electricity interruptions. But at the same time – a big pool with constantly changing water, solarium, saunas, excellent tennis courts.
The same surveals reigned in the restaurant. For 10 days, that I stayed in Cetini, the lunch menu consisted of something resembling unforgettable "soup kharcho", fried fish, obviously putassu of hexic origin (despite the fact that the sea is under the side) and "Pepper cookies", That is, in our opinion, pork roast. For breakfast, there was an eternal omelet with crackers, proudly called bacon. At the same time, the waiter, helpfully fed, asked for some reason in French: "Omelette Au Jambon OU AU FROMAGE?" (that is "Omelet with ham or cheese?") And, without waiting for the answer, put a plate with a constant omelet. But the tablecloths and napkins were white and starch, the devices are immaculately clean, the waiters are closed in tuxedo, and Metrdotel is so even in a fracture.
Besides participants in Biennale in "PARK-HOTEL-CETINJE" In those days there were almost no one. Sometimes, however, for the night they brought tourists from Serbia on the buses, sent to the sea or back home. From time to time in the evenings, concerts of folk songs and dances were arranged in front of the hotel. As usual in such cases, they carried some excessive tourist gallery, but still amazed. Especially dancing like "Chernogorsk Chora" – Four men, holding hands, got up with a ring, they still got four on the shoulders, and even four closed on "third floor", and thus they started spinning slowly, while the knees. No less severe impression produce ancient epic songs performed under the accompaniment of archaic bow tools, gloomy, solemn, fascinating – even if not all words are understandable.
But back all the same. Do not despair about Chernogorsk cuisine on the example "PARK-HOTEL-CETINJE" (and there, I am sure, now much better). The people who fought for centuries and the living among the harsh nature did not have time and the ability to indulge in gastronomic delights. Their food – food of courageous and serious people. And, of course, it looks like a kitchen of neighboring countries – Greece, Turkey, and the proximity of Italy affects. Same "Mussaka", same "Dolma" – Stuffed vegetables, brewing soup-"BACK", Roasted meat, all kinds of kebab. Like the Greeks and Bulgarians – a cold chowder of sour milk with spicy grass and fine cucumbers.
All this can be enjoyed in restaurants and cafes, which in Cetina, as already mentioned, not to read. In addition, in Montenegro, they know how to prepare dried and smoked ham, on the Italian manner "Proscintto" and sometimes not at all inferior to the famous "Pusto" From Aosta. Dry mountain climate is perfect for the manufacture of this kind of food. No worse and local sausages and local "Sudzhuk", less acute than Armenian or Turkish, but perfectly running under local wine – like sheep cheese, similar to Greek "Fetu", But more spicy. And as far as the local wines are not afraid, especially dark red "Vrataz"! He has a rich and strong bouquet, a bit heavy, similar to the one that the South Franc Words seems to be Cahors or Minervois.
I assure that unpretentious meal from local bread, cheese, "Pusto", Maslin and vegetables together with "Byvnac" can’t not deliver pleasure. Lovers of strong drinks – a rich selection of different varieties of Rakia, and young, white, and weathered in barrels and therefore yellowish or amber. If you make friends with someone from the local, then be sure that you will see you with great pleasure to go home raki – a rather brutal drink of degrees in 70 – before the state that you will begin to sing with you unknown to you, Chernogorsk songs.
It can be perfectly able to cook coffee, which is made to drink with carbonated mineral water on ice. In the heat it is wonderful! What is the sea food on the coast – about it in turn.
A loved one of the ethnographic shopping of Montenegro large selection, perhaps, can not provide. You can buy a national embroidered vest or a shirt (unfortunately, as it should be, such things are little similar to the real and made exclusively on the needs of non-sensing tourists). You can buy chased dagger, but you risk getting problems on the border. Without problems, you will bring out the voyage woven Suma – but what will be done with it in the absence of riding transport? So buy a Chernogorsk men’s hat, something like a low fez from red felt with a tassel and embroidered golden thread on the bottom of a double-headed eagle – this friend of us is a bird and a Chernogorsk coat of arms, and Petrovichi Leshi, respectively and Monsieur Nicolas Petrovik, in relation to Romanov.
Well, now about why Tszn Mountain – Orthodox Checky. True, fortunately, currently "Peaceful". First of all, Montenegrins are the only of the Slavs-Orthodox living in the real mountains. With all the ensuing consequences. Then, they always fought – often for reasons, understandable only by him. Thirdly, around – solid innovants. In the south – Muslims, in the north – Muslims, in the West and the North-West – Catholics. To the one-terrestrial and unified Surbs earlier it was difficult to get. As a result, the Montenegrins, which are, in essence, mountain sumps, belong to Valine Palsy, even better than to other neighbors, but with obvious distrust and not always hidden contempt: "merchants, peasants, rogues, spoiled from the neighborhood with Catholics, and in general, do not respect the family". Family and old men for Chernogort residents – Until now, the highest authority. Like national heroes. In every cafe and just in the houses hang portraits of interest – Peter II and Nicholas I. Once, after the superior, we sat on the lawn behind the Russian Embassy, burned the bonfire, drank "Vrataz" and crawled, and suddenly a crowd of hooligans appeared – in local "Grabares". And I must say that foreigners in Cetini have not seen two years already. Not that they were aggressive, no, they just expressed their curiosity to us in the forms of Spane from Kyoto to Oslo. Like "Give a smoke" and "Let’s drink". Here the head of the old man with gray mustache rose over the next fence, who said the phrase from which I disassembled the words "UNAC", "uterus" and "flaws". "Grabari" immediately subsided, apologized and went on their affairs.
But then the region of surrealism inherent in Chernogorsk life begins again. To begin with, no black mountains are not black, but white. Further – these horses, so far honoring grandfathers, fully experienced the impact of Titov socialism, in which Yugoslavia was economically open, allegedly built on some "working self-government", those who risked in this doubt simply sazhali. The habit of military action also made its contribution – as well as massive labor immigration in the old memory of hated Germany and Italy. Almost every fifth Chernogorets lives and earns abroad – that, in fact, and allowed the population to survive in conditions of blockade. Russia and Russian attitude is very dual. On the one hand, limitless love for "Makeup Rusia" and absolute faith in the right point of the statement of Zhirinovsky "We are 300 million" (Vladimir Wolfovich generally enjoyed great popularity, although, in this case, it is not clear how he counted so much: Chernogorstsev about half a million, Serbs under six, even if they write Belarusians and Ukrainians to Russians, it will not work anyway). On the other hand – resentment on "Make Utia": What are you with the Americans, Jews and Masons (the French are meant under masons) imposed sanctions on us? The most remarkable thing that such opinions express people, in their professional activities obliged to be cosmopolitanically tuned, for example, the curator of Biennale from the local side, the intelligent lady named Harran. She herself told himself with delight, how many years lived in Paris and how comfortable foreigners there.
Youth easier dreams of "Mercedes", It is rejoicing that the new dinar (by 1993 inflation reached such a level, which had to print pieces of paper billion, and then simply introduced a new currency) equals Doych Mark (which is not entirely true). And confesses a completely caucasian cult of light jeans, luxurious sneakers and silk italian shirts.
In my stay there, the country was fed by agricultural fruits of his hands, translations from Rodney abroad, money left by tourists from Serbia and the results of smuggling cigarettes (taken out, apparently from Macedonia) to Italy. The pinnacle of Chernogorsk logic was the answer to my question – why Cetini was written inscriptions "Amphilochiye, Won of the Tshar Mountain" (Amphiloh – Metropolitan of Montenegro). I was answered: "So he was serb, he was sent from Belgrade, he writes in the church metric of our children with Serbs". At my attempt to explain that in the baptized certificate, the ethnicity cannot be indicated, it was answered – "it may have no Russians, but we have – yes". Well, then again about "Makeup Rusia", And after the next "Ryatiki" – Choral shouts in Italian "Evviva, Evviva Montenegro!", accompanied by a gesture made up of poppy large and index fingers to the sky of the raised both hands.
In Cetina, it’s great, but for a tourist, of course, the main thing is to be on the shore of Yatra, the Adriatic Sea. From the town where you can get two roads. The first, already mentioned, very beautiful and convenient. She leads to the resort complex Budva, in "Chernogorsk Riviera". The name is lush, but quite appropriate. This is a wide and long bay, separated by a cape, covered with a wonderful pine forest. Nearby – the famous Islet of St. Stephen, connected to the shore of a narrow oblique. The island is all busy an old village, now turned into an expensive hotel. Above the shore rises a mountain range with a height of a more kilometer.
On "Chernogorsk Riviere" Unique climate. If in Cetina and on the top of the mountains it is dry and quite sharp, then by the sea – moderate subtropics. This makes it possible, for example, in April or October one day to ride in the mountains on skis and swim in the sea, and then sip under the palm trees. Budva is mainly a modern resort built up a variety of hotels, from very expensive to quite moderate. Although there is a tiny old town with the Venetian fortress. And here is a huge number of restaurants and restaurants, cafes, shops, discos and other attributes of civilized tourism. Beaches – and wide sandy, and pebbles, and rocks. And purest like liquid blue green glass, water. The only slight inconvenience (if you swim by the rocks) – the abundance of sea heels, creatures are very beautiful, but equipped with many thin spiny needles, driven into heels. So if you think to go to fish hunt, it is better to do it in slippers.
Chernogorsk coast – a short cut, a little more than 100 km in a straight line, the only piece of the sea, remaining "Malaya Yugoslavia". In the south – border with Albania, in the north – with Croatia. Accordingly, all the Serbs who want to relax by the sea seem here. But international tourism is reborn. Although on the coast map is very short, in fact it, thanks to the abundance of bays and capes, much longer and incredibly picturesque. Home Pearl – Kotor Bay, "Boca Kotor". In essence, it is not a bay, and the only Fiord in the Mediterranean basin, deeply populating in the mainland, complicated, with a lot of islets, who have mastered his peaceful water. Almost sheer mountains are praying in the east, the shores are covered with wonderful towns and autonated by the forest. To the main city "Boki", From Cetini, you can get along a very exotic and quite dangerous military road built by Austrians during World War II. At first she loops on the intricate shape of the mountains, past the Delichen array, and finally climb on the top of the seaside ridge. From there a breathtaking view. Under the legs – Fiord, white houses and churches, fortresses and monasteries, islets, and then – the apartments of the Adriatic, where Italy can be seen on the horizon in clear weather. The distance is only 60-70 miles. Loading on sparkling sea Misty silhouettes of American warships, and perpendicular to them, throwing out powerful jets, smugglers supercatters. Imported cheap cigarettes in Bari or Brindisi. And then begins a half-hour descent on a fantastic zigzag serpentine. I considered turns, but when I got to the hundredth with something, and the end was not yet visible, stopped. However, in which you can get through the Budva, less active on the psyche in the way.
In which you immediately understand that, without crossing the border, it turned out to be in another country. The coast of Icestari was part of Dalmatia, was under Italian influence, and most of the local population – Catholics. City, like other towns of bay, completely Italian architecture. Narrow loop streets, white houses with balconies, ancient churches, fountains. Residents of the bays from ancient times were famous for fishermen and seaworthy. They did not disperse and piracy: secluded harbor in the rugged bank, it was impossible to come better to hide from the pursuers. Sea romance is very felt here.
Full comfortable tourist city, like the northernmost in Herceg Nova bay, located at the border with Croatia. But you can not miss the other villages, admitted to the shore, for example, the perfect miracle, the town of Perast. He, by the way, is closely connected with the Russian history. Here, in "navigator school" Captain Marinich at the very end of the XVII century studied sea wisdom pet Peter I. Perast is completely small, with the only street stretching along the shore, several churches, restaurants, hotels and monastery on the island of meters 300 from the embankment. Pony, cypress, palm trees, framing a cafe terrace, fishing boats at the pier, networks dried in the sun. Here everyone breathes calmness, the former centuries, here and you yourself begin to breathe easier.
And just when you go along the Kotor bay, we are moving away from time to time through it on the ferry, – for a minute you never cease to admire the events of the shores, islands, then disappearing, then appearing again, follow the game of light on the water.
In coastal restaurants kitchen although it is impossible to be high, but it is much more diverse mountain. First of all, here in the abundance there is fresh fish in different kinds – "Fish Chorba", National fish pussy, slightly similar to the famous Provencal "buoyabess" Fish fried on the grill or in a pan, smoked, baked. There are in the supply of mussels and – in the season – Oysters. They are although they are inferior to the Atlantic, but will not make firewood "Frutti di Mare". As well, naturally, crabs, shrimps and lunguhsts. And besides this – all the same Mediterranean Muses, Dolma, kebabs, Pastra and Kababa.
And about prices in Montenegro? What, prices are prices. Dinar is now worth about a third of the daisy brand and tightly tied to it. Residents "Malaya Yugoslavia" In general, they prefer the German currency American, although they also do not refuse. It cannot be said that life and goods are more expensive than in Moscow, but not cheaper. It makes sense to compare prices in different stores and restaurants, the ratio between price and quality does not always correspond to each other, and in the market you can bargain. Well, we are quite used to this.
Now in Montenegro is much better than two years ago, when I visited this wonderful country. And if it were not wonderful, I would not pull there.
Nowadays no longer need to fly at the company’s military aircraft "Pan-Ukraine", can be reached by a civilized way. Resentment about treason "Uatki Rusia" Surely subsided, and sympathy to the Russians – remained.
Peter II Petrovich Lesh still exaggerated, stating that Montenegro could not. She is. And it is beautiful.