Lighthouse Kypu. Sights of Estonia
Lighthouse Kypu, Hiiumaa – the second largest island of Estonia is the oldest working lighthouse in the world. He began to act back in 1531. Lighthouse height 36 m above ground level and 102 m above sea level His light is visible at sea at a distance of 35 nautical miles.
In Estonian, the Word Koop, the Kopu Page Paddle (Kypu), means "Quiet Sound". Previously, the lighthouse was more famous called Daggerort – from the Swedish Dag- "Day" (Dager – "Day, daylight, light") and ORT – "place, edge, paragraph", as well as "Cape".
Officially, the construction of the lighthouse refers to the beginning of 15 in. (period of the heyday of the Hanseatic Union). The construction of the tower began in 1505 and lasted with interruption of 26 years. First bonfire on the top of the tower lit in August 1531. Already at that time, the Lighthouse Tower was a tetrahedral prism with massive counterphorts in the directions of the main divisions of the compass. To the height of 24 m, the tower consisted of a solid cobblestone tied with a strong cement. In total, more than 5,000 cubic meters of stone were laid in the body of the tower, and its total weight amounted to almost 12 thousand. tons. At an altitude of 24 m was the lower room with 2 windows oriented to the East and West, in which the ministers were located. There was another one in this room, in which there was a winch in the form of a wooden spire on the iron axis, pulley and cable for lifting. Later on the Eastern Counfury tower staged a wooden staircase. Over the upper room there was a playground, on which a bonfire from dry resinous firewood was lattice. In quiet and clear weather, the fire was visible by 15 miles, but the fire often pouring fire into rapid weather and scattered wind.
The first written testimonies of the lighthouse are found at Wittenburg (1644). This tower was also seen Dilih (1604) and olearius (1635). With the Swedes, Dagerorth lighthouse was given to the rental content of Timenlis Cornelis. In 1659, the lighthouse was prescribed, and its height reached 36.5 m. In 1660 Count Axel Julius De La Garde bought the entire Island of Dago from the Swedish government for 38,000 rickestar, and accepted its obligation to illuminate it with remuneration in 800 ricker.
Under Peter I, from all ships following Dago to Revel, Narva, Vyborg and Nienshanz, collected "fire money". At that time, the lighthouse was highlighted regularly from August 15 to December 30, as well as from March 15 to April 30. Thus, the Dagerorta Lighthouse is the first in the Russian waters of the Baltic Sea Lighthouse, which served for the purposes of commercial shipping.
In the 50s 18 in. The fire was supported from mid-March until the end of April, then from mid-August to the end of the year, and they lit it an hour after the sunset, and extinguished the sun of the sun. In 1766, the Lighthouse was transferred to the Countess Ebbe Margarita Plisbok, along with the estate of Khrenholm. In 1792 this estate bought Baron Roman Ungern Sternbert. He requested the state of 5,000 rubles with silver annually on lighthouse lighting. The fact is that then for the maintenance of fire was required about 2,000 cubic meters. SAZ. firewood per year. For many years of the life of the lighthouse, the whole forest has grown around it, and the firewood had to be delivered from afar, and with a rise to the mountain. However, from the treasury at first all over 3000 rubles. In 1796, the state has ceased at all, but Baron supported the lighting of the lighthouse to 1805, distributing the supply of firewood between the inhabitants of the nearest peasant yards, freeing them from other works.
In 1805, the Russian state assumed the lighting lighthouse. Immediately after that, the capital restructuring of the tower began. It was repaired, painted white. In the southern counterfour in the stone masonry cut down the turn to the top, setting up a stone staircase there. They say, years 3-4 ago, a drunk fin flew from the very top, counted all the steps and got off the broken hand.
Both official premises were restored, and on the top of the tower of a total height of about 35 m put a flashlight, illuminated by 23 oil lamps with silver reflectors. Only the eastern side was not covered. In 1845 above the light-optical apparatus staged a wooden lamppost with glasses. In 1854, the tower was again repaired, embedded the crack appeared on the top. At that time, the lighthouse was covered every night from July 1 to May 1st of the next year (10 months a year). Lamps lit strictly at the time of sunset and exhausted not earlier.
In 1859, the Graphic Prince Konstantin Nikolayevich (son Nikolai I) in the title of the Nikolayev (son of Nicholas I) in the title of the Great Department (Son Nikolai I) became a decision on the replacement of the lighthouse lighting machine to a more perfect device of Frelevsky type 1 discharge with glimpses. In accordance with this decision on May 1, 1860, such a rotating apparatus was put into effect with the visibility of fire at a distance of up to 50 km. The apparatus made at the lepty plant in Paris was brought into a uniform movement at a speed of 1 turnover of 4 minutes using a clock mechanism with the gay. In the apparatus there was one karshel system lamp with 4 concentric luminaires. Purified robust oil was supplied to the lamp with a flow rate of about 0.5 kg / hour by the pump operating in the same clockwork. If the oil in the lamp ended, it started calling the bell inside the apparatus. The apparatus placed on the pad with the cast-iron gallery, protected the cylindrical light with a height of about 3 m with large mirror grinding glasses. The lighthouse served a team of 7 people of the lower ranks, one of which was at the top constantly.
In 1869, the counterfour in which there was a staircase, covered with boards. In 1883, a telegraph station was installed on the lighthouse, for which the wooden house was specifically built with a lighthouse. A rescue station had a rescue station, which contained two rescue Bota-cruiser "Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich" and "Grand Duke Alexey Petrovich". They had to take turns to stay on the windward side of Nekcherngrund banks and warn vessels that are too close to the bank, as well as provide assistance to disaster. The bots were painted with red paint, had the word "Nekhengrund", written in large white letters on the side. The bots were equipped with brown sails and edges for sounding sound signals.
In 1898, telegraph equipment removed and posted a telephone station instead. In 1900, at the World Exhibition in Paris, the newest French light-optical system was acquired, which was established on the lighthouse in 1901. The system was rotated using a suspended cargo 400 kg. In the composition of the light-optical apparatus there was a kerosene-rolling light-optical installation that rotated in a mercury bath almost without friction. In 1901, they performed another overhaul of the tower, storerooms, other buildings and structures. In 1940, the lighthouse was tested by a power supply network from the state network.
During World War II, the Lighthouse Tower was strongly injured, the lamppost and optical apparatus were destroyed. However, due to the durable stone walls, the tower damage did not become fatal, and it was possible to quickly restore. In subsequent years, navigation equipment on the lighthouse has undergone significant upgrades. In particular, in 1949, a stationary light-optical system was mounted on the lighthouse, and in 1963 – put a more advanced optical EMV-3 system.
Full overhaul of the lighthouse was produced in 1957. In early 1970, then in 1979. 1981 In connection with progressive destruction, it was repeatedly repaired by external walls, but completely stop the processes of destruction of individual places of masonry of the walls failed. In 1982 again conducted overhaul of the tower together with the improvement of the territory of the lighthouse. At the same time, a light-optical apparatus EMV-930M with a limit of appearance of fire 26. 30 miles.
Now Lighthouse – the landmark of the island. In addition to the lighthouse itself, you can see the place of residence of its owner, bath, as well as the machine room, and all this is included in the list of objects of architectural inheritance.