Look, they kiss.
Everyone who remembers himself a teenager remembers how he suffered because he could not kiss. Even before people invented the wheel, learned to hunt mammoths, they touched each other with her lips. This is an occupation of the time of the century was one of the most important code manifestations of human communication. So important that in some cultures – for example, in the Chinese – a kiss was an event that an outsider did not have to see.
Many of us remember the ritual of meeting meetings "socialist": Podchulay old men of passionate each other. Brezhnev or Honecker only with a very big fantasy could be suspected in an alternative sexuality. Most viewers wondered and disgusted dismissal. What happened?
Remember that Jesus Christ took the Kiss Judah. In European culture, a kiss, in addition to ordinary erotic or family importance, has a social, political meaning. Kissing and kicked (kissing and cleaned) enter the irregular, blood connection. In ancient Rus, the cross. Europeans in the Middle Ages there were easier, frankly – they are kissing each other. Roland could not suspect a cunning gannelon in the coming treason after they hugged and kissed. In Poland, inherited by knightly morality and thanks to this, a victim of more pragmatic powers, like Austria, Germany and Russia, was the concept of Pan Brat. Any nobleman, from the corona warrior of Vishnesetsky to a shattered gentle of Zhytomyr, who, except mustache and saber, was not for the soul, when meeting was kissed. From this custom happened to the Russian word "Pennibrate" – Remember the Nozder, the climbing Giving Chichikova. In Russia, in Russia, in Gogol times, such a manner was considered vulgar and unacceptable between cultural people.
For me was a cultural shock when in 1987, at the dawn "Perestroika", I found myself in Paris, not seeing to do not Warsaw, nor Sophia. Having come to visit the first day, I was demanded absolutely not familiar to me. Why on earth, this wonderful lady pats me on the shoulder and rewards with a welcoming kiss?
And then it’s a simple thing: you’re not a stranger, I came to – live in my territory. Do not invade my problems – I will not get into yours. As in transmission "In the animal world". When you start "Read codes", Life becomes easier.
In the manner kissing the pattern: the north, the less often the chastener is happening. In Norway and Sweden, you, regardless of the floor, will be shake. In Italy, drizzdom. If in Scandinavia you suddenly try to kiss on the cheek or arm half-familiar lady, it will be perceived either as a scandal, or as a confident declaration of love. If somewhere in Rome or Florence you a pat on the shoulder blades, will conclude in his arms and cling to your mouth (sex is not important), it means that you have the right to call your new friend, he would do what he was talking, and can also count on the invitation to visit him home. Is he with you "quietly". Like any Gannelon, he can cross to the other side, but the deed is done.
As for the kissing of hands or legs, this is an area in which the expression "Social readiness" (The term Walter Benjamin) manifests itself brighter. In Italy, it is still customary to kiss the youngest member of the family hand senior. It happens not only in Sicilian mafios. I saw a nephew (I studied in Harrow and Cambridge) fell to the hand of my uncle, "Tio", And he, not forgetting that the Baron Crown is located on his envelopes above the name, was not embarrassed at all. So why not kiss the hand of the priest – which, however, on the Appenne Peninsula, everything is less frequently, the penny of the bishop or a shower of the Holy See, which is no longer done at all? Jan Voitulla, Holder Keys. Peter, was confused when the Orthodox Russian Visitor of the Vatican suddenly – remembering the books cleaned by him – I tried to do it.
But in Hungarian facing a woman standard greeting, like "good day", means "Whole knob" – "Chokol". Polish Shcholteskaya tradition does not allow you to kiss the lady even in the forehead – it is possible only with "Pan Brother". Pans kiss handles. Still. On the other end of Europe, the Irish also kiss the ladies. What wonderful knighthood relic! Having met a potential enemy, a man, as a sign that he has no weapon, raised his hand. If there was an ally next to him – "Splores" – he got excusted with him. Woman’s knight (in English Knight, that is "servant") I could kiss only the hand. Woman is Ma Dame, therefore, she symbolizes the Virgin Mary. And the English word lady sometimes meant "hostess", that is, the one from which it will be, there will be bread in the house or not. And, according to the rules of ancient mystical courtesy, Dame, Lady answered the kiss in the forehead. Kiss in the cheek appeared clearly a lot later and was more familiar.
But God you will tune to kiss the hand of the Frenchwoman, German or Englishman from the intelligent medium. For her such an act – something extremely archaic, almost indecent for a modern person. Naturally, it does not concern the ceremonial kissing of the queen. But most of the British do not have the case in this way to express respect for their monarchine and, through it, the sustainability of British traditions. The usual, brought up in the democratic spirit of the European man hand will take the hand, but it will be offended, deciding that you are a dense Male Chauvinist Pig. Sometimes the desire for complete emancipation and equality comes almost to the absurd: the lady of the left convictions may insult if you give her hand when leaving the bus or try to file her coat.
Another area of human communication is connected with kisses. In Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Poland, the most expressive curses include a wish that you kissed in the back place.
All over the world kiss in general. But for some reason, some nations sometimes believe that others do differently. For example, Anglo-Saxes expression FRENCH KISS denote a deep, wet kiss. For example, both between Brezhnev and Honkecker.
Interestingly, the fact that interesting perturbations sometimes occur with the words that designate a kiss. Among the French "kiss" – Un Baiser. The same nozmere was going to "fly" Chichikuu "Another nonsense". But the verb Baiser means in modern language something else, much more intimate, and with a very vulgar tint. As a result, "kiss" passes through Embrasser, hug. From "Kiss in Guba" Whenever "hug in lip". My friend got one day because of this linguistic strangeness in a very inconvenient position. Also bad speaking in French, she was on a secular secular dinner in the presence of a French ambassador and diplomatic ladies. Cakes submitted for dessert "meringue". I must say that in French "meringue" It is not called Baisers at all (although, probably, in Pushkin times it was so it was), and Meringues, Merengi, as they were already called during Dostoevsky. Well, my friend to participate in a conversation, take and bryakni: Jhaime Baiser – "I love. " (to top it all without article LES, indicating that she still means a noun) – "And I can do it". At the table for a while, embarrassed silence reigned. Although the French and love to discuss sexual problems, but not to such a degree of frankness!
It is also funny that sometimes the French themselves are confused in the one word to use. Working on these reflections about kisses, I wondered – but how to say in French "kiss the cross?" Began to rummage in the explanatory dictionary of Le Robert – he did not scatter my doubts. I called familiar French, and they also puzzled. It is known that among the inhabitants of this country practitioners of believers are quite a bit. But the unbelieving Russian would answer quickly and accurately. They are not. Having consistent, my friends suggested that correctly and "more poetic" There will be Apposer Un Baiser Sur La Croix – "make a kiss for a cross".
Well, now about the everyday kissing side in Europe. For us in Russia, in a novelty, when on the street, considerably, a couple selflessly kisses. What, it is known, there was no sex in the USSR. In Europe, the existence of this phenomenon has long been no doubt. Accordingly, its touching and sufficiently modest manifestations in public places will not shock anyone. In the northern and traditionally more Puritan countries, love kisses on the street became quite common. At the same time, as already mentioned, in Sweden, Norway or in the north of Germany, welcoming kisses, especially between men of traditional orientation, not accepted. And in the south of Europe, much more expansive and burning, on the contrary – the diverse youth still modests, although less and less.
France, as is known, is between the North and South. On its territory, different cultures and customs have been mixed. At the same time, all French culture is permeated with eroticism, like no other of the European. In France, everything is kissing with everyone. Of course, if you come to a business meeting or get acquainted with a government official, you should not try to cut into the cheeks of this messenie or this Madame. But in an informal setting and if you with a person are already familiar – it is simply necessary to exchange kisses. Quite often it happens with unfamiliar. But usually, provided that you both feel that your acquaintance is unlikely to have direct business goals. In the welcome kisses there is a shade of familiarity, friendly responsibility, and should not immediately take on this responsibility. By the way, do not confuse if at some informal party to you immediately begin to contact "you". The French in recent decades are generally very easily moving to "you". If you even have a lot of older than you tell you "you", You can easily answer the same. These are respectable seeds do not insult. However, in the Wednesday of the Sad French Bourgeoisie, children still appeal to "you" to parents, and sometimes it happens even between his wife and husband. If the Frenchman kisses you and "Pleet" You, this means that he either takes responsibility, or, on the contrary, signals that it is completely inclined to business relationships: "You are an excellent guy, let’s be friends, but not a word about money!". But in Sweden, with the exception of the most official relations, appeal to "you" Or with help "Mr. / Mrs" almost completely disappeared. Almost all on "you" And by name.
How to kiss in society? If a man with a woman, then the hand is usually not served – it would be, along with kisses, a sign of even greater familiarity. Just crosswise, welcoming each other kiss one, two, three or four times in the cheek. Very often it turns out to be pure imitation, touch of the cheek, the lips also produce a kiss sign into the air. But often kiss truly. It is natural, more pleasant. And it is completely unpleasant if you are not guessing whether it is only necessary to portray a kiss or touch the lips to someone else’s cheek. If the person with which you kissing, your close and good girlfriend can and even have to get it by the shoulder. She is most likely – if you do not do this first – will answer you the same. Between men, it is usually customary to shake hands. Close friends also hug.
How many times to kiss? This is problem. Once it happens rarely, in this something unfinished and even slightly contemptuous. Most often – two, especially in Paris. The most economical and verified way. But almost as common to three-time kissing. Comes up to four times. In the province it is believed that four are in Paris. If I’m not mistaken, the further south of France, the more you kiss. In this arithmetic, you also need to have good intuition and do not commit Faux times, reacted too quickly or, on the contrary, leaning over once again. In general, as you can see, science is quite complicated and rich in shades.
And in Italy do not amaze, if you hug you firmly – if you are the closest relative, will be squeezed to the tight abdomen, packed with spaghetti and calf escalopes, and then not in the cheek, but right on the lips – if your friend in a good mood or slightly abused Chianti that may well happen. But in the more gloomy Spain or Orthodox, but strongly affected by the Turkish influence of Greece, kisses, especially between men, will be less. As in England. One friend Frenchwoman explained that all the British are homosexuals (such an opinion among the French is very common) – therefore, they are ashamed to show their feelings.
The fact that is sometimes confused by foreigners is the custom of kissing children of other adults. This is usually happening at the end of the evening when the child goes to sleep. At first he kisses parents, and then bypasses all guests and, wishing good night, all their excitement. Sometimes they are engaged in these and quite averaged children, it seems that have already experienced kisses of another property.
So do not be outraged by the Generalists and their brothers in the socialist reason. They seem to be in their own times who already erased from our memory times are much advanced than many Europeans from post-industrial society.