Magic of the Greek City. P.S. – Thessaloniki, Greece – Tourist Blog
How many countries on the planet attract us with their treasures, treasures of art and culture, their charming natural beauty. And there is an excellent country among these treasures, to visit in which it is vital, at least once.
I will not open it for you again, saying that even in deep antiquity in this country has developed and reached the highest dawn culture that has played a huge role in the development of European civilization. I will not make discoveries, saying that the ancient Greeks made an invaluable contribution to science: mathematics, astronomy, medicine, geography, history, right; in literature, art, sport and many, many other spheres of human activity. And I will not surprise anyone, told how striking the achievements of Greek philosophy were, the best representatives of which were striving to know and materialistically explain the world.
As accurately notched Mark Tully Cicero, writing one day: "Do not know what happened to your birth – it means always to remain a child. In fact, what is human life, if the memory of the ancient events does not associate it with the life of our ancestors?"
In the world of the Gods
Many hundreds of studies have been written about the religion of the ancient Greeks, and the ancient Greek myths have gained extremely widely known. The fantasy of the Greeks created the world of the gods in which, as in the mirror, the relations that dominated in society and family life were reflected. They were in all similar to people and "happily" very close to the mountain peaks: Olympus, Parnassa and others. The gods were friends and knew, loved and hated, the sprill of intrigue, the chitri, cheated, rejoiced and repent. They constantly "interfered" into the life of ordinary people.
Faith in their omnipotence forced the ancient Greeks to seek their patronage, build them temples, bring sacrifices, subordinate them all the order of their lives.
"… Living on the bright Olympus immortal gods The first race of Luda created happy; it was a golden age. God crown rules then in the sky. As blessed gods, people lived in those days, not knowing neither care, no work, nor sorrow. They did not know and weak old age; Always were strong and strong their legs and hands. Painless and happy life they were eternal beer. Death, coming after the long life, was like a calm, quiet sleep. They had everything in abundance. The Earth itself gave them rich fruits, and did not have to spend labor on the cultivation of fields and gardens. Numerous were their herds, and they calmly grazed on fat pastures. Serenely lived people of the Golden Century. The gods themselves came to them to consult. But the golden age on Earth ended … "
Ancient Greek culture has become exceptional, unique and largely unsurpassed phenomenon in the history of world culture. I think with me agree with many who at least once admired the fruits of the activities of Greek architects, sculptors or painters.
Statues, they seem to live in space. They are even not necessarily bypassed to feel the dynamics of "dance" in time. In some sculptures there is not a single calm part of the body: torso, legs, hands, neck can not stay in the position for a long time, in what the sculptor showed – a little more, and they will come to life.
As in the perfect plasticity, many of them managed to convey, full nervous excitement, the state of heroic characters of mythology or athletes, full strength and energy, not yet cooled after the struggle.
The ability to create smooth, flowing outlines of statues made compositions of sculptures impeccable: bends of figures are elegant and graceful – perfect human beauty.
The topic of rest, rest, dreamy thoughtfulness embodies the beautiful and harmonious nature. The gods are shown as ideal people. And it is quite natural that a person when it is developed harmoniously, perceived as a beautiful deity.
Architects Iktin and Callicrat, Sculptor FIDI, Philosopher Anaxagor, Poets Sofokl and Euripid, Comediographer Aristophane – The imprint of their genius lies on most of the monuments of that time.
Monuments of antiquity are available throughout the territory of modern Greece.
Once here were beautiful and crowded cities. On their existence and location, modern scientists learned from the ancient literary monuments, they were looking for them for a long time, and then patiently slipped the ruins, which in their own language tell us now about the life of these cities and the life of people who once inhabited.
The flowering of the culture of ancient Eldla is so amazing that it still causes deep admiration and gives reason to talk about the real riddle of the "Greek Miracle".
And although in the history of the dogre culture and now there are many unclear, found royal tombs, gold masks, objects associated with religious ritual, shed light on the nature of this civilization.
From the ancient Sparta There is almost nothing left. The scarcity of archaeological finds confirms what we know about Sparta from written sources. The least of all this people took care of the magnificence of temples. During its power of Sparta, it was similar to a military camp, where a strict routine of life was installed. Gymnastics, training, games, hunting absorbed all the time of Spartans when they were not busy war. Even girls studied here quickly run, fight, throw discs, throw a spear. To engage in crafts and other useful work is prohibited, considered shameful. Labor was a lot of slaves. Spartans believed that the best protection of the state is the valor of citizens, so the city did not even have walls.
Olympia Never was neither a city or a state. Nevertheless, the place was worldwide fame. It is here that from time immemorial, the largest of the Ellin holidays was held – Olympic Games.
About the emergence of Olympic Games There are many legends raising them to one, then to another mythical era. According to one of them, this holiday appeared during the times of Kronos – the father of the main from the Greek Pantheon Zeus. According to the existing traditions, at first, only his part was devoted to sports competitions. Another part was entirely religious and accompanied by relevant rites, processions and sacrifices.
Participants of the Olympic Games, numerous guests and spectators, spent from all the ends of Greece, brought generous gifts to the gods, built in this sacred for all elevents the place of temples, Altari, Treasury, who had to glorify States, their configuration. However, with the cessation at the end of the 4th century, Olympic Games, all these structures were declining and were destroyed by natural elements. The thick layer of sand fully covered the ruins of the Olympia, which have laid almost fifteen centuries under it.
Century ago, systematic excavations were started here; They are underway and now, bringing new and new finds, telling about the culture, life and customs of the ancient Greeks.
Olympic Games, Purified from all religious layers, were revived in our time, becoming a holiday of all nations of the globe. Now, like the millennium back, in the "sacred" grove, the Olympic flame is lit from the Sun, and this symbolism gives a special significance to the most ancient sporting holiday on earth.
Shopping center Peloponnes, A rich, prosperous city once was Corinth, known later as one of the foci of early Christianity. And now his ruins attract a lot of pilgrims who come here to wander around the places, where, in church legend, the Apostle Paul preached. But Corinth is known not only by this. For many centuries before the emergence of Christianity, this city was heard by one of the centers of freedomiff in ancient Greece.
In the 4th century BC.NS. lived in Corinth Famous philosopher Diogen. In his teaching, he rejected the polytheism, and with it all religious cults, considering them by human inventions. Freedom and happiness, according to Diogen, could be achieved only when a person is independent. The truth of his teaching Diogen tried to prove on a personal example. The sage refused wealth and lived in the clay barrel at the market, the garbage from which was fed. Diogenes fundamentally did not want to be dependent on anyone, and above all of the immaterial authority. Surprisingly, the glory on the teachings of Diogen, stories about his strange life, overlooking the limits of Greece, small legends scattered around the world.
Near Epidaur There are ruins of the god of his doctor famous in ancient Greece – Asclepia. On the statues found, God is depicted with the staff, losing the snake – the emblem of health and wisdom. It is curious that in "Iliad" Homer firing asclepia is not like a deity, but as a historically reliable personality.
Preserved and remnants of buildings Askeyone, where priest doctors treated patients. The temple itself, dug out of the earth, is transferred now to the museum. Other interesting exhibits are also collected here, for example, a recommendation on dietary nutrition on the marble plate. On the level of anatomical and medical knowledge of the time, the casts of various body organs, as well as surgical instruments of stone and bronze. Among the sculptures of the image of the daughters of the God of Asclepia – Gigueys and Panakes, who were considered patrons of two areas of medicine – preventing diseases (hygiene) and the treatment of them (Panacea).
On the territory of Askeyway, stone baths for hydrotherapy are preserved, an amphitheater, where there were performances for the walking patients. But the labyrinth is especially impressive, in which they treated mentally ill.
At the foot of the Mountain Parnas are the ruins of an equally well-known ancient city – Delphi. In one of the Homer’s hymns, it narrows that God Apollo, who chosen his place for the sanctuary, killed the dragon of the Pyphon. Then, who turned the dolphin, God led a ship here with Cretsk Seafarers, who became the first priests of his temple. Here was the most famous Delphic Oracle in the ancient world.
Legend says that the Delphic Oracle approved Likurg’s laws. He was requested by the Council of the famous African legislator and the poet of Solov. Olympic Games were approved from the "sanctions" of Oracle. Even the most powerful of the ancient Greek states – Sparta – did not accept any important decision without consultation with Oracle.
Delphic Oracle was widely known outside Greece. The kings of many cities asked his advice and sent here the richest gifts. Now in the Dolphic Museum is the most interesting exhibit – the marble "PUP of the Earth" – a symbol of what Delphs are the center of the world. Here was its republic, the Republic of Priests, who specialized in the prediction of the future, and who did not want to look into it? The priests used the permeals of the Delphic Oracle to strengthen their political influence in the ancient world. And government figures deftly used them to implement their plans when their personal authority was not enough for this. After all, the pursuations declared the people were perceived as the Divine Will.
Delphi city, like many other ancient years, gradually collapsed and disappeared without a trace. Long and carefully looking for his remnants archaeologists, until they found them deep in the ground under the village of Kastri. Before starting the excavation, I had to relocate people, to take out thousands of tons of soil, and then before people appeared that previously there was only a legend: the ruins of the sanctuary, temples, the sacred wall surrounding them. Thanks to detailed records that left the package in their book "Description Eldlas", it was possible to accurately recreate the image of ancient delphs.
Although the monuments of material culture found in the excavations found in the excavations, works of art and other values were divided into many museums of the world (they are stored in Rome, Vatican, London; Museum in Delfa has a very interesting exposition. Among those stored invaluable treasures, the famous polygnostic composition, bizarrely connected myths and reality – the fall of the Troy and the underground kingdom.
Once Ellity arranged festivals in honor of God Dionysus, the patron of winemaking. These celebrations, accompanied by theatrical ideas, were called Dionysias or Vakhanalia. Over time, Dionysis began to consider part-time and patron of dramatic art. Therefore, theaters were built not only for entertainment, but also in order to earn His mercy and patronage. One of such theaters built in a picturesque valley preserved in the epidavra. Once on his stage, the tragedy of Eschil, Sofokla, Euripid. And although the actors in them were the Earth kings and their patrons of the gods, the theater served the protection of the principles of freedom and democracy. But the theater in the epidavra is striking not only with sizes. Acoustics Here such that any word that is said by a semi-coat in the arena is equally audible tens of thousands of spectators sitting in an open-air in the stands of the amphitheater. Now the festivals are held here annually, in which you willingly act as Greek and foreign artists.
Who can accommodate, but accommodate
Walked a century. Christian communities were created with the emergence and distribution of Christianity in Greece, Christian temples arose. Although their dimensions were much more modest, and the architecture is monotigable than the ancient temples, but also the uncommon tagging of the Greek people showed itself. It is impossible not to admire the magnificent mosaic of the early Christian period, Byzantine frescoes, connected in the Orthodox churches scattered around the country and monasteries.
Ancient monasteries … how often their walls resemble the walls of ancient fortresses. However, they, as a rule, were built with a double calculation and during the invasion of the enemy served as a strengthening. Most Greek monasteries are located high in the mountains, far from settlements. However, their current inhabitants do not seek to grasp. Men’s monasteries are often industrialized by the production of pottery and souvenirs. In the women’s abode of nuns are busy with needlework and carpet.
Monasteries are scattered throughout the country, but especially many of them on Mount Athos. Over Athon, according to Christian legends, the Most Holy Mother of God took a special patronage. On incredible miracles that took place and occur here now, you can not only hear from the mouth of the monks, but also read in solid church publications.
On the legends of the monasteries, in short.
In one of the monasteries, the icon of the Iberian Mother of God is especially revered by Orthodox Christians, which, as described, independently moved here from the city of Nice. Having stopped at sea, she commanded the pious hermit of Gabriel to approach her by water, as ********* transfer it to the abode. After the pious hermit performed this indication, and the icon was locked in the Cathedral Church, she his own moved to the gates of the monastery. Feeding that such value may disappear at all, monastic brethren tried to lock it many times in a particular room, but the icon again and again returned to favorites. But that the monks do not worry, God’s Mother itself passed them through the same hermit of Gabriel, that she decided to become a goalkeeper, t.E. Admitracy of the monastery.
How similar legends are created, where the truth is, and where the fiction?
In Porto Rafia, where the sea is crashed into a rocky shore, there is a small chapel "Holy Maria". They say that here, during a hard storm, sailors who were in the open sea and lost hope for salvation, heard Women’s voice from the shore. This landmark helped them find entrance to the harbor and escape from an imminent death. Woman screaming from the shore failed to find. Then the clergymen announced that it was the Holy Maria, and in memory of this event built a small chapel.
Similar chapels in Greece set. They are found on the roads and in the mountains. Who built them, in honor of what events or in honor of whom – forgot.
On Greek land, in each of the current monasteries, such wonderful stories can tell you hundreds. And, according to legends, in these monasteries there are countless relics, starting with the cross, on which Christ was crucified, and ending with the relics of the Holy Apostles.
Now the ancient monasteries are elder. The wooden staircases crumpled by the sun and the hot wind are complaintsuate under their feet, the wooden stairs will be bumping, and the monastic cells are empty: among the monks there are almost no young, old people are becoming less and less ..
And very close to the monastic "states" the life, which is called, hits the key. Fashionable resorts with hotels, nightclubs, bars, gaming halls and other types of entertainment facilities will approach them.
The fourth thousand years exist Athens – the capital of modern Greece. Despite all the time, there is a huge number of monuments of ancient Greek art, many of which are concentrated on the Acropolis.
Acropolis is the center of any ancient Greek state, which is usually on a high hill. Here, behind the fortified walls, the population of the city was covered during the times of enemy invasions, the most important buildings were erected.
In some period of time, the activities of architects, sculptors and painters focused mainly near the Athenian Acropolis – the Holy Hill, where the building ensemble was created, the pride of the Athenians themselves, which caused admiration for not only Ellini, but also neighboring peoples. Among the monuments of antiquity, this monumental structure also occupies a special place.
During the reign of pericla (5th century BC.NS.) Acropolis acquired the importance of the state’s religious center. At the site of the oldest stenquist destroyed by Persians, a huge temple was erected – Parthenon, the ruins of which "serve" as if the symbol of ancient Eldla. Once both fronts of this building decorated the magnificent sculptural works of Fidiy, depicting the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus and the dispute of Athens with Poseidon because of the attic attack. These were the latest works of the Great Scary. As the legend says, he was accused of confusion for the fact that at the shield of the goddess Athena depicted among the battle himself in the form of a bald old man who raised her head of her head, and his patron – the leader of the Democratic Party of Pericla. Fidi could not justify, was sharpened in prison, where he soon died.
To this day from Parfenon – the magnificent creation of the architects of Yktin and Kallikrat – only the core is preserved. After conquering Attika, Romans were taken out of here all the most valuable masterpieces. And when an ancient Greek religion gave way to Christianity, the miners of the latter were thrown out of the Pufenon beautiful statues of the ancient Greek gods. The very sanctuary of the Virgin Athens has become the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Later, Turkish conquerors turned Parfenon in a mosque. Finally, during the siege of Acropolis, the bomb broke through his marble roof and hit the ammunition in Parfenon then. The explosion was crossed by the building beyond recognition. Miraculously survived after "farms" in Parfenone Romans, Christians and Muslims. It is difficult to even imagine how much the invaluable creations of the human genius destroyed, struggling for the "true faith," for example, the same Christian church, not to mention the Muslim invasion.
Athens today is a big modern city with all cities in the world contrasts and contradictions.
"Our state system does not imitate foreign institutions; We ourselves most like a sample for some. We love beauty without whimsality and wisdom without a lotness; We use wealth as a convenient tool for activity, and not for boasting in words ". Approximately the same, in those distant time, I broke with the tribune Pericles – a great speaker, a commander and a statesman, whose huge authority even recognized opponents.
Only the Greek people almost simultaneously and almost in all areas of culture managed to achieve unprecedented heights. No other people – neither before, nor after – could not do anything like.
Now the position of Greece and its role in the world is far from those that were in antiquity. The crisis that covered capitalist countries, touched and Greece. Inflation is acute in the country, the production is reduced, unemployment is growing, the standard of living continues to decrease. Under these conditions, the working people expand the struggle for their rights. For three year old months, two demonstrations passed only in Thessaloniki. The strike of teachers in Athens lasted several months. Ready to classes "Martyrs of Science" (students) Deferred for an indefinite term of classes for the holiday did not consider. By the way, in thessaloniki, students began according to the schedule.
Sophisticated, but, at the same time, Greece is experiencing a significant period of its history today. I think in her fate there will still be many bright moments and beautiful dawns.
Leaving the earth of Greece, I guess the desire to return here, to the country of inexhaustible opportunities, to the country of the Sun, to the country of smiles, to the country of recreation and century-old traditions.
From this summer, I forever and with all my heart is attached to Greece.
I do not know the country with such a huge lyrical strength, and such a touching picturesque – with all its brightness, tranquility and space, – as solar hospitable Greece. The magnitude of his new love is still difficult for me to measure. Everyone knows this. Do you love every village, trembling in the streets with leaves, every olive, warmed by the Sun, every kitten, plaintively pouring food, each cloud floating on a bright blue high sky. Sometimes I want to live a half century just because there is little one life to experience all the charm and all the healing power of Greek land. Yes, and on your own, native, the expanses time should also be left.