Mystery of golden pectorali
Heritage of Ancient Egypt is huge. But to realize it, it is not necessary to turn to colossal architectural facilities or ancient texts. You can open the whole world in the fact that for us today – just decorations.
The tomb of Tutankhamon, found by Howard Carter in 1922, is rightfully considered one of the greatest archaeological discoveries. During the excavations, thousands of things accompanying the king in a different world again saw the sunshine – to tell the descendants about their owner and about the epoch in which he lived.
Tutthanhamon treasures – and, above all, numerous gold jewelry – made it one of the most famous Egyptian rulers. However, the abundance of precious materials and the perfection of jewelry technician often distracts us from the most important thing – from the idea that the ancient masters embodied in the jewelry. Indeed, in each of the pectorals (chest ornaments), bracelets or necklaces of Tutankhamon there is not a single element. All of them consist of a variety of symbols of words that are connected in the story of Pharaoh and its destination.
So, in the famous pectoral with scarab, the name of Tutankhamon – Neckave, "Lord of the conversion of the Sun". This is a throne name, which gave the king at the end of the throne and reflected the basic idea of His Board. Half-round basket under the holy beetle’s rear legs – this is a hieroglyph of a sky, "Vladyka". Skaraba with three vertical dashes was read as can, "transform", and the sunny disk over the head of the beetle passed the word Ra, "Sun".
. Parents of Tutankhamon were Ehnaton and Queen Quea. Ehnaton rules for only 17 years, but these years have become the time of the deepest crisis in the world of the ancient Egyptians: Pharaoh elevated the only God – Aton, a sun disc, in the name of him by destroying the names of all the former gods and destroying their temples.
When Tutankhamon inherited the throne, he was only 6-7 years old. Apparently, under the influence of advisers, Aeie and Horamechab, in the 4th year of the reign, the young pharaoh canceled the reforms of his father, returning the Egypt of the former gods and restoring their temples. These events meant the return of culture in the traditional channel and gave hope for the revival of the country:
". Gods and goddess located in this country! Their hearts in joy. Vladyka sanctuary. Fun throughout the earth. Good ideas accomplished. "
On one of the pectoons of Tutankhamon, a king is presented, sitting on the throne in front of the width goddess Maat – the incarnation of world orderliness. The symbol of this goddess was light like truth, an ostrich pen that adorns the head of Maat. The king stretches the goddess of the sign of the anch, and that, in turn, spread her wings in the gesture of protection and patronage. Pharaoh’s head crowned Blue Crown Hepresh – Attribute of the King Military Values, which reminds of numerous scenes of hunting or the flow of enemies presented on other subjects of Tutankhamon. These compositions are endowed with a deep symbolic meaning: the king is not just hunting or subordinates the recalcitable peoples, at the cosmic level it extermines the enemies of the world order and establishes Maat – order and justice. In the right hand of Tutankhamon – Heck. He was identified with the stack of a shepherd, following his herd, and the hieroglyph of this rod indicated the magical knowledge, a means of execution of the divine design of SIA.
One of the most impressive decorations of young pharaoh is a golden corset, which closed the top of the king’s body. This ceremonial decoration includes three parts: a mustache necklace, a wide belt and two ribbons connecting these elements. Corset consists of a variety of small gold plates bonded by moving connections so as not to constrain the movements of the king. Each of the plates is encrusted with various stones – turquoise, lazurite, carnelian or slices of colored glass.
A landscape necklace was one of the most beloved Egyptian decorations. It was a few horizontal bead threads bonded vertically into a wide collar, closing the chest and the back of the owner. Egyptians often compared this decoration with the wings of the goddesses, embracing and thus defended by the person. Woven from a set of beads, a crash necklace was a pretty heavy decoration, so it was often accompanied by a counterweight manhoot, descended on his back and retained a mustache at the chest level.
A rectangular pectoral is adjacent to the corset necklace, at which the young ruler is represented in front of Amon RA, the Lord of Upper Egyptian FIV, who returned to his abode thanks to Tutankhamon. In one hand, Amon – Anh, a sign of life, which God gave the ruler; In another – a long staff with an ideograph of the royal jubilee, symbolic designation of long years of reign. Behind Tutankhamon are located the Nizhypethet gods: Atum – God from Sokol’s head, topped with a double crown of Upper and Nizhny Egypt, and the goddess IUSASA.
The lower part of the corset is a wide belt – consists of a plurality of drop-shaped elements that reproduce the plumage of divine wings, which the goddess (as a rule, Nut, Isis or Nekbet) defended the king. This ornament, called Rishi, was very popular in Egypt of the epoch of the new kingdom.
Each of the decorations that wearing during the lifetime was suspended on a gold chain or tape, made in the same style as the pectoral herself. The castle of one of the tapes supported the pendant in the form of a core was made in the form of two sleeping cetings (completed the ends of the ribbon and fastening among themselves). Egyptians loved images of sleeping birds, for they symbolized a short-term sleep, followed by joyful awakening and continued life.
This motive becomes central in one of the steam of Serg Tutankhamon. In a circular medallion – central decoration element – Located fantastic birds from a duck head and cub. Birds are compressed in the paws of infinity Shen, the shape of which repeat the opened wings of birds. The upper part of the segin reminds modern earrings-carnations. It consists of two hollow parts inserted into another. The front side of the carnation is decorated with sacred cobra guarding the ruler.
Tutankhamon Gold can tell a lot about the doctrine of the royal power, about the worldview of the ancient Egyptians and even about the personal life of this king. So, in one of the numerous laces g.Carter discovered Pectoral with the name of Ehnaton. This find suggests that, despite its reforms, Tutankhamon has retained respect and love for his father. In another Larz, annexamon’s necklace was found – beloved sisters and the spouse of the young king. Usually in these decorations are seen only precious material and skillful work, but an inquisitive mind will see the person and destiny of the ruler.
. The country has been reborn, but fate was unfavorrone to the young king. His sudden death, which occurred on the 10th year of the Board, when Tutankhamon was only 16-17 years old, interrupted the thread of the XVIII dynasty. The burial of Tutankhamon was rush and modest – taking care of the welfare of the state with a lack of funds in the treasury, the young king did not have time to prepare for himself a luxurious tomb. He was buried in a small tomb, which in a few years simply forgot. Nevertheless, what he did for his country lives in his monuments and Dynam.
". Did not happen similar to him among the valiant all countries. Knowing as RA, [skillful as] Ptah, comprehending like that defining laws. Tsar of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of both lands. Nechaprore, who has developed both lands, his native son, his beloved. gifted by life, durability, happiness, like Ra forever, enernechniferously".
Already 5000 years ago, the Egyptians learned how to handle stones and work with the metal. Among the most common techniques were carving, chasing and engraving. Egyptian jewelers perfectly owned and hot metal processing – casting, forging and spike. For example, the radiograph of the famous mask Tutankhamon showed that the mask consists of two parts, the connection line of which divides the face of Tutankhamon into two equal parts.
Many precious products decorated with grain – a variety of small granules soldered to the surface of the metal. These granules were obtained by pouring molten metal through fine sieve in cold water. Then, creating an ornament on the surface of a product, each of the granules were attached low-temperature solder.
One of the most exquisite techniques of Egyptian jewelers was the technique of a sectional inlay, at which narrow metal strips formed the set of cells were soldered to the surface of the product. Inlaid was inlayed in these cells – precarious stones or stained glass. During the rule of Tutankhamon, solid inlays began to be replaced with a glass powder, which in the firing turned into a homogeneous mass-enamel. So there is an existing technique for this day of seducing enamels.
Favorite materials Egyptians were noble metals – gold, silver, electric. Their notability made these materials synonyms of eternity. Traditionally, gold glitter was identified with the radiance of the Sun, and the flicker of silver – with moonlight. The value of the electra – alloy gold and silver – hesitated depending on the proportional ratio of these metals.
The favorite stones of the Egyptians were dark blue lapis – a frozen night sky, an allegory of honorable old age and eternity; Greenish turquoise – a symbol of vitality and rebirth; and carnelian, the color of which was similar to the color of the blood – the personification of the eternal movement and vital energy.
Among artificial materials, a special place was held by Fayans, which became one of the symbols of the Egyptian civilization. Up to the end of the new kingdom, faience was used for the manufacture of only sacred objects – amulets, temple or clock utensils. Sometimes it was used to simulate more expensive materials, and in this case he took on the symbolism of turquoise, lazurite or other stones. But most of all the Egyptians appreciated the faience as a self-sufficient material in which the ideas about immortality and revival were embodied.