Narrow path along the Arabian Sea
Earth strip along the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India – from 40 to 60 kilometers wide and about 600 kilometers in length – called Conan. From the east, it is cut off from the subcontinent of mountain varnish western Hhata, which rises by 900-12 meters and creates a powerful barrier on the path of monsoon winds. Therefore, the riot green nature of the Konkan is different from the space on the other side of the mountains, where "Traditional" India. The same violence surprises the history of local places where peoples, languages and faith were mixed.
- Earth strip along the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India, where peoples, languages and faith were mixed, called Conan
The narrow trail of our journey stretches through four states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Carnataka) and two allied territories (Danam and Dia, as well as Dadra and Nagaravel) – from Surat to Gokarna. The northern point of the route – almost three millionth industrial surat – Western Hhata begins, and with them and Concan. Near the largest place of Hindu pilgrimage – Gokarna – there is no natural landmark, but everyone knows that this geographical area ends, and then the coast is called Malabar. Separated by administrative and language barriers, the inhabitants of the coastal strip of Western India are combined by the general mood of the soul – they are all concans.
In Motherland "Orlova"
Even 16 million bombards, the most overcooled Indian city considers Konkansky.
Since 1996, Maharashtra since 1996 is called Mumbai, and its international airport is named Shivaji (1627 / 30-1680), the national hero of the Marathov, which make up the state of the ethnic majority. From the small feudal of the XVII century, this man grew up to "Holder umbrella" – the symbol of the royal power, becoming the first ruler of independent Maharashtra. Three years ago, opposite the entrance to the airport, a monument was opened – as well as everywhere, Shivaji sends to the Garlication Kone, Zorkko peering in the earth, in battles for which his life.
Mentally greeted the Hero of Marathov, we sat down in the ordered car and went on the scheduled route: along the Arabian Sea – first "up", north and then "way down", South. And did not even suspect that Shivaji, or as a hospitable owner, or as a reliable guard, will ride next, "Bypassing a ward" Former possessions on the west coast of India. But it came out. However, in order.
In our plans, the stop in Bombay did not enter, but it was not possible to quickly leave it: the traffic jams blocked the move, and we froze opposite the arches leading to the Temple by Mahalakshmi. Among the inhabitants of India are 83% – Hindus, most – especially businessmen – honor Lakshmi, the wife of God Vishnu, and connect hope for success. However, in this popular temple, built as an outpost on the shores of the Arabian Sea, was not a simple lakshmi, but Mahalakshmi, that is "Great"! "Great" Lakshmi does not need a male support: she is stronger than all the gods that gave rise to her joint efforts to win over the evil demon, to cope with which they were not on the shoulder. Mahalakshmi – a goddess mother, inner energy – Shakti – all that exists on earth, and the driving force of the main Hindu gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Then the direction in Hinduism, which recognizes the superiority of the female divine start, is called "Shaktism". In the Shaktristian temple, where we were, on the sides of the Mahalakshmi poured from gold, the Mahakali and Mahasaravati, which the goddess takes on the situation depending on the situation. And before the trio, the figure is the figure of a huge lion – her riding animal. It is said that at the end of the XVIII century, engineering works were conducted here, trying to fall asleep in a duct between the two islands, but the embankment constantly washed off. And then the local contractor-Hindu in a dream was a goddess-mother, who told that her sculpture was recessed near the shore. Filight found, and bulk work was crowned with success. It is precisely because the temple arising later and enjoys such a fame that the figure of Mahalakshmi – an elegant woman with a gold ring in the nose and a pearl necklace – is considered not man-made, and the mother-in-law, that is, which arose without the participation of a person. Only such gods are able to execute requests, so the Hindus of them especially appreciate, bypassing the third of the ancient temples, for which crowds of foreign tourists rushes to India.
13% of Indian Muslims are a minority only in the proportions of India. In the number of their 145 million confession ranks second in the world, yielding only Indonesia. Next to the Temple of Mahalakshmi, but not on land, but right in the sea – at least it seems when the tide floats a kilometer, – is the snow-white tomb – Dargha Haji Ali, Muslim Saint. According to one version, he was a local merchant and before pilgrimage in Mecca distributed his wealth, but he died on the way, and his body was delivered to his homeland. On the other, he was not from India, died during the commission of Hajj, but on the will of the coffin, he was brought from Mecca to the Red Sea and they were allowed on the waves, and he moored to a small island in the Arabian Sea – just near Bombay. There in the XIX century and Dargas were built, and then the mosque. At first they traveled to them only during the low tide, but then they built the mall, which is a miracle, manifested by the Holy! – Even during the 2005 cruel monsoon, when the whole bombing suffered. In this city, they believe: Haji Ali will perform any request, and therefore all the bombing people are stretched towards him (regardless of religious beliefs), feeding, as Islam is laid, the alms of the suffering sitting on both sides of the road leaving at sea. Lovers of couples come here: the megapolis with his real problems remains behind his back, and the light breeze plays in the folds of clothing and gets cold.
On the highway we got only in the evening and rushed to susta. "Run", True, only in your own thoughts – even on large highways in India, average speed rarely exceeds 50 kilometers. The Maharashtra and the language of Marathi remained behind the back, and a new language was waiting for us in Gujarat – Gujarati, and another alphabet. However, Hindi helped and English – both languages in India are recognized as official. In Surat, they drove in complete darkness and again were in traffic: it was at night everywhere – near the warehouses, offices, shops – burden huge bales. It seemed that nothing has changed from the Middle Ages, when Gujarat fabric served as a universal equivalent in the eastern markets from Japan to Oman!
- In Gujarat, they will especially honor Krishna, because here mythology places a dwarpet, the ancient capital of this embodiment Vishnu
In the XV-XVII centuries, this city, located on the Taptti River, immediately flowing into the Arabian Sea, was the largest Indian port. In about the same way, he became famous as the center of the cut of precious stones – according to one of the versions, it was from here Armenian Georgy Safras brought and sold in 1775. Gregory Orlov’s famous diamond. Known now as "Orlov", The stone was given to Catherine II, inserted into the monarch of the monarch of the Scepter and is now stored in the diamond fund. And today a significant part of the global industrial processing of diamonds is concentrated in susta.
We were not averse to look at one of the granular factories, but the next morning the city thundered orchestras and everything was closed: the Hindu began a period of weddings associated with the favorable location of heavenly luminaries. Streets again turned out to be branded – grooms on white horses or in luxurious crews accompanied by dancing relatives and friends. And we were looking for surviving only here, despite bloodshed, fires and destructive floods, and unique tombstones of English, Dutch and Armenian cemeteries anywhere else in India. Two- and three-storey pavilions and mausoleums, made in the style of Arabic architecture and still preserved traces of internal paintings and mosaic, found themselves in the very center of the city – near the Muslim fortress of the XIV century built by Afghans. Here, under the arches of the magnificent mausoleum, Governor Bombay Gerald Ongier rests, posing in the 1670s began the rise of the city entrusted to him and thus brought to the extinction of Suat. And the fortress today has become an office: in front of her, right on the street, clerks are sitting on the writing machines of the last century, ready to make up a small reward appeal to any instance.
Here are demons – gods ..
By susta, we moved under the chime of my mobile phone: the friend of Star Vaduya reported on the negotiations with the patriarchs of the community of Pars. Flooking and curly, with eagle noses, Pars-Zoroastrians live a closed team and reluctantly reveal the soul in front of strangers. Our route passed through the city of Nazari, one of their shrines. Set in honor of the ancient Persian Tsaritsa Star, a member of the authoritative family of Parsers, managed to negotiate with dustists, the highest priests so that we were accepted there as their own.
Dustourji Mehreji wound from Nalzari – a smiling old man in snow-white clothes and a white hat in the form of a truncated tube – met us friendly, but in business. His house with adjacent buildings and courtyards for general meetings and rituals – Dustourvad – stands in the same place where his ancestors once settled, – even the yard well has more than a taint story. The title of Dustura and the knowledge of theological subtleties and nuances of the ritual are inherited, but many couples remain childless because of the traditionally late, sometimes close-friendly, marriages. Familiar to us Dustur from Nalzari lives together with his wife and sister of his wife – they have no heirs. However, even those old people who have they are preferred to live their age in the Parsian shelters – pride does not allow them to become a burden for working children. In Nazari, we were shown a chain of such houses that took half of the Russian Quarter – – the peaceful and purity reign. On the other half of the quarter, many buildings were with scored windows: former neighbors were driving around the world and now communicate with each other through the World Organization of Zoroastrians.
But wherever they live, in each Russian-building, there is necessarily a lamp with sacred fire, in front of which the hymns sing "Avesta" and give daily prayers. And in each community, majestic temples are required – Agiairi (in this word you can hear the otlovka of the Indo-European word "Fire"), where Atash Bechram is supported, the Sacred Flame. Inoviertsev do not even let them steps, but "like their own" We were taken to another place.
When we opened the gate leading to the famous Kindokmam – "Towers of silence", I experienced cultural shock. I knew that Pars would not betray dead fire, nor the earth, no water, because the remains should not be discharged by any of the elements, but they are going on grinding – bird grinders with hook beak and deprived of the neck. Shock followed because everything looked not as I represented. First, there were no gloomy towers as high in the sky: two raised-well-groomed green areas were on a height of 4-5 meters – stone platforms in the shape of a circle with a diameter of 12-15 meters. Our accompanying, Ashpandyar, said that from the inside, they represent the bowls with a bottom of the metal lattice, under which there is a deep funeral pit. Obtaining the dead, members of the community lay out nude corpses on the lattice, and when only the exa remains, the bones are slipped into the well. Secondly, over both platforms, as if gigantic umbrellas, solar batteries rose! Noticing my bewilderment, the Ashpandyar explained that the problems of an environmental nature were affected by the populations of the vultures – feeding the desiccable unsympathetic birds turned out to be so gentle that they were acquired incompatible with the continuation of the kind of disease due to diclofen – medicines, which turned out to be stuck today buffets and other livestock. So I had to put in "Towers of silence" Powerful installations, in favorable conditions instantly burning dead flesh. "And in the rainy season, when there are no sun?" – I thought, but I did not decide to ask this naturalistic question to our warflash: we rushed home to his home to meet the beauty of the wisdom of the All-Indian Competition "Passionist Miss", dreaming about loud career in Bollywood!
One more detail struck us. Long before the appearance of Pars, descendants of the ancient Iranians, and Indians from Gujarat, the descendants of the Indoary tribes, belonged to the indoire communities, whose representatives called themselves the appearance in Iran and India. Their ancient books – "Avesta" and "Rigveda" – contain many similar myths and similar names. Here are only Asura from Hindu "Rigveda" – these are demons who constantly lead wars with the gods, whereas, on the contrary, positive ahura from the Parsian "Avesta" It’s not about life, but to death against our maiden demons. However, in Konkan, everything gets along: and Lakshmi with Mahalakshmi, and Ahura with asuras.
Christians: "Romans of the East"
Portuguese has strengthened the first in India from Europeans. In 1498, Vasco da Gama opened the seaway around Africa and got to the Indian south. A little later, the colonom of Afonus de Albuquerque with firearms and intrigues, sowned between Muslims and Hindu, beat off Bijapura, "Chip" Bachmanid states, Goa. And in 1542, Francis Xavieri, the nearest allegations of Ignatia Loiol, the founder "Jesus society". Jesuit showed an incomparable preaching dust: wandered, kneading children, with a bell and hit the young soul with stories about Christ. And also created schools and hospitals, cared for the sick and fish grave dead. He passed away in 1552 in China, but his body remaining non-renewed, despite temporary burials and shipping, delivered in 1554 in Goa and put in the Basilica of Jesus Baby. Then his right hand as a relic was sent to Rome. Two hundred years ago Fanatic bitching the little finger on the leg of the saint. Since then, the sarcophagus with a transparent lid is held on a high pedestal, and believers are allowed to persuade the relics of the canonized Xavlari in the Decade, the last time – in 2004. After the death of Jesuit, in 1560, and the inquisition came to the monks of Dominicans in Goa, and this region turned into "Rome East" with diocesan jurisdiction from the Cape of Good Hope to China and further. However, one Goa Portuguese was small: they tried to displace all the forces "Mavrov", Arab merchants, significantly earlier established on the west coast of India. Starting with pirate shares in the sea – the capture and arson of ships, the Portuguese switched "on ports", Capturing in the XVI century Diu Fortress and Port Danam. Portuguese colonies Goa, Daman and Dia existed until 1961, until Indian troops entered the Goa and did not proclaim her merger with the rest of India, in 1947 became independent. Then these places were announced "Union Territory", managed from Delhi. Goa became an independent state in 1987, and Daman and Dia are still controlled by the federal authority.
The Cantkan coast, cut off by bays and bays, eliminates the possibility of moving in a straight line, but in addition to the flora and fauna and general dietary habits – contributes to the monumental peculiarity of this region. Such an innumerable amount of marine, coastal and mountain fortresses, built by local razhas and sultans, the Arabs and Ethiopia, Deliani Mogolas, Portuguese, the British and the Dutch, finally, the leader of Marathov Shivaji – on many of them he let the funds mined at four-time plundering of Surat, – can be found only in this part of India. Our driver Ravi, Marath himself, and then pointed the place on the road, where Shivaji beat someone or lost faithful comrades. Having heard, we almost won the Jain nurses from the Order of Schvetambarov – "Dressed in white". They vigorously steamed along the highway, closing the mouth with a marelier bandage and a small blizzard cleansing the way: so they observed the principle of Akhimsi – Non-accomplishment of harm to living, including small insects. So we have imperceptibly reached Daman – the Allied Territory Daman and Dia. Not spoiled by tourists, like Goa, Daman more preserved Portuguese. The most powerful fortification structures of the two parts of its parts – the Greater and Small Daman – are located exactly opposite each other, from different sides of the mouth of the Daman Ganges, which flows into the Arabian Sea, and still carry his watch. Thick walls are looking through the entire Large Daman around the perimeter, hiding inside the Catholic cathedrals of the Portuguese era. But the most picturesque local spectacle is a fishing fleet at the mouth of the river: multi-colored flags and schooned on drying. Multicolored underwear challenge the gloomy bastions and sing the anthem of peaceful life. That condance should smell fish and fragrant seasonings, I imagined for a long time, but in Daman, this smell finally lasted nostrils.
- Former Portuguese possession, Port Daman, at the mouth of the Daman Ganges, once filled with battle sailboats from Lisbon, now belongs to peace-loving fishing schunam
In Silvas, the capital of another union territory – Dadra and Nagaravel, highlighted in an independent unit for the sake of preserving the identity of the Conquain’s tribes living here (undoubtedly, autochthonous residents of Konkan!) and warble, we turned out late at night. And again, Daman Ganges happened to us, on the shore of which a modern hotel is located. However, in Silvas, no one slept – the illumination sparkled, and on the streets they sold orange-white-green Indian checkups: the next day – January 26 – the country celebrated the Republic of the Republic.
Celebrated the state festival of India and we. Leaving Silvasi at the dawn, Ravi squeezed everything that the car was capable of on the Indian road, and, overcoming for three hours, 100 kilometers, got to Wasai, in the past – Portuguese outpost, just by the beginning of the festive events. Here we met His Eminence Thomas Damp, Bishop of the Catholic Community of Vasai. We listened to the entrance speech of the mayor and tracked the national flag, but the parade of schoolchildren could not watch the end: knowing that we were not delayed for a long time in the city, the bishop calculated time in minutes. We are swirl in the ruins of at least five fortresses and again were on the shore of one of the bays of the Arabian Sea at the opening – with Christian prayers and hindlow sandalwoods – a new refrigeration installation of cooperative fisheries! In the concan, the temperature is rarely lowered below +30, and the new unit guaranteed local fishermen (Hindus and Christians) the preservation of the catch. Such an important event was specifically dedicated to the Day of the Republic, and here are still guests from Russia!
Wasaytsev’s hospitality did not know borders – especially for us, the bishop decided to serve the evening mass. In the XVII century, the Italian Roberto de Nobili, spreading the Christian faith in India, adapted her to local customs. In the future, the Roman Catholic Church condemned the deviations in the field of rituals, but still Christianity in India has a special smell and flavor. The flock in the head of the Cathedral looked as bright as the crowd on the Sunday market. Mass began with rose petals, which in dance between rows of benches scattered orphan girls from the shelter "Society of Assistant Virgin Mary". His Eminence Thomas Damp, a native of these places, served Mass to Marathi, and words "In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit" In this option they sounded unusual and touching.
We left Vasai in the pitch darkness. On the way to the place of overnight stay Ravi waved her hand somewhere aside: there, on the shore of the hookah bay, they want to install a 25-meter monument to Shivaji – not on horseback, as usual, and in growth, like the Statue of Freedom, perpetuating the memory of the hero as The creator of its own sea fleet.
Zoroastrians: "The subjects of the lord of wisdom"
Followers of the Prophet Zaratuchtra, or Zoroistra, fled from Horasan from Arabs and Islam. Call different dates of this outcome – from 650 to 936, but it is just known that they got to the sea at the Cape Dia on the Khiawar Peninsula, and then to the mainland Gujarat. Local Raja accepted them on three conditions: let women wear sari, and men will refuse arms, and let everyone go to the tongue of Gujarati. Agreeing, parks (i.e "Prone immigrants") I founded the settlement, giving him a name from the native places – Sanjan, and lit the sacred fire – Atash Bechram. Monotheists PARS worship Ahuramazd – "Vladyka wisdom", Script in the Holy Book "Avesta". This ancient-perceid monument was a zarathushtra himself, told how 30 years old was autonated by the vision of Ahuramazda and the true faith. Ahuramazda, created life, heat and light, helps spheresign – "Holy Spirit", And he opposes evil Anchramine, or Ahriman, who has breeding death, winter, cold, heat and harmful insects. The forces of good and evil are in constant struggle: other Akhuramazdi helps Ahuramazda, and the Achriman’s military makes the virgin demons. The main symbol of Ahuramazda is a fire that gives people the power to victory over evil – may appear in the form of a zipper, a focus and a sacred flame, around which all ceremonies are concentrated. In Sanjana, the main Parsian shrine of India – a commemorative stele with a symbolic flame is towers. From here, the workers who were afraid of any work moved to Nalzari, Surat and other places and became famous as high-class weak and carpenters. When the British strengthened in susta, it gave the pairs of new opportunities: it was easier for the aliens to find a common language with each other than with the indigenous population. At first they were born there, and then together with the British went into the growing bombing. In 1702, Rust Manek was appointed by the official broker of the East India Company, and by the middle of the XVIII century, all the broker offices in Bombay were in the hands of Zoroastrians. In addition, parties have acquired a reputation as good teachers and engineers who are seriously related to education and career. Achieving the goal often delayed the creation of a family, besides, while maintaining religious purity, Zoroastrians sought to find a marriage partner in their own environment. Because of this, as well as because of the outflow of ambitious members of the community in the West countries, there are only 65 thousand fire crystals in India itself.
"Namaz" in synagogue
To the south of Bombay, we got into that part of the Konkan, which was once cultivated "Saturday wrappers". Here in each village there is a synagogue, painted in a gentle blue color, and live for several families standing out among the neighbors except with the kips on the head in men. But we rushed to Navgaon – for Indian Jews this city is the same shrine as Sanjan for Pars. Synagogue We discovered among coconut trees and low houses of the former Jewish quarter. The memorial board reported that the chapel was erected in 1840 to the funds of the soldiers of Bene-Israel from the British army and reconstructed in 1910 for donations in memory of the drowned relatives: Solomon Moses Vakrulkar made 100 rupees, Isaac Abram Malekar – 60 rupees and t. D. Fate and chart of movement led us to the synagogue just during Shabbat. The door turned out to be open – the morning prayer was walking, on which only three people were attended. The old rabbi of the conversation did not support, perhaps he still remembered those "Best" times when the prayer in the room was not poured, and did not want to comment on the proven present. His companions were very kind. Levi Joseph Vakrulkar, the master of ice cream shop on a narrow street of the Jewish Quarter, turned out to be a descendant of the very Solomon Moses. Benjamin Samuel Navga Encar – a guest from Israel, who visited his own edges 35 years after emigration and stopped at a child’s friend’s house, Hindu. They showed us the road – 5-6 kilometers aside – the most ancient in India cemetery Bene-Israel and to a memorable stele with inscriptions on Marathi, English and Hebrew, rising from the six-pointed star. "Ask asked the pass, that is, Parashurama, he looks at the cemetery and tell you everything", – advised Levi.
Name "Parashuras" Speaks about many and most importantly – that his carrier is Hindu, a representative of the priest caste Brahmanov. The cemetery with the monuments in the land in the shade of the trees on the very shore of the Arabian Sea we found, but the passage, as reported in the house nearby, died a couple of months ago, which means that the community history was carried away, which served all his life.
By local legend, the first Jews got to India after shipwrecks in the Arabian Sea. Seven married couples who were thrown ashore were dead, but the patron of Konkan revived – a powerful parashura, the sixth terrestrial embodiment of Vishnu. The fact that the Hindu elements are present in Jewish legends, and their service Bene-Israel is called a word "Namaz", denoting prayer in Islam, indicates how everything was mixed on the Concantry Earth! She, by the way, is obliged to the same parashura. When in mythological times it is for the first time "appeared" Here, the water of the Arabian Sea splashed at the foot of Western Hhata. To win the living space, God rose to the mountain peak and released the arrow in the sea: the scared ocean retreated just on the same 40-60 kilometers, which constitute the width of the concan. It is not surprising that many religious and caste communities of this land connect their origin with Parashuram. He worships local fishermen, whose life belongs to the sea, because he was able to subjugate himself.
Residents of the mountain parts of Konkana claim that Arrow was released from their mountains, and the inhabitants of the coastal strip – that she fell into the sea where their settlement is located. Near Chipluna – Typical Concantry Town, located in the foothills of Western Hhata, 296 kilometers from Bombay and 40 from the sea, – is the most famous temple of Parashuram. Here, of course, it is also believed that God pulled his bow at this very place: it found himself a miraculous way when milk looked at the stone slab with divine traces from the short cow. Parashuram is usually depicted in the form of an athlet in a loin bandage: in his hands he has an ax – paradise, hence his name – "Rama with ax" – and Luk. In the same temple, he does not look like a bodybuilder, but as "normal" God Vishnu is surrounded by two more celestialists – Brahma and Shiva. However, this sculpture, like the temple itself, cannot be ancient: In the Chiplun and the surroundings in the XVII century, the Siddid dynasty – descendants of the Abyssinian Muslims, who, one day, destroyed the temple and treasured treasure.
Our trail is approaching the mountains, then went along the Arabian Sea. When we drove along the highway, we are completely and nearby small roadside chramics of the oscillation of the elephant god Ganesh: it is considered to be a revenue and eliminator of obstacles. Ravi challenged the coin to God – sometimes on the go, sometimes, in front of a winding plot, stopping the car and uttering a brief prayer for a prosperous arrival for another purpose. But the road sometimes had to ask at random passersby. They usually explained: reach the monument to Shivaji and turn right. Or left – the geographical vector changed, but the landmark remained the same. It was a feeling that the Great Marath jumps in parallel to our course. And once Ravi got us in a tree, where the hero is dedicated to an impressive museum complex, stylized under the fortress. Before her gate stood the union of elephants in the natural size and guards, dressed in the costumes of the era of Shivaji. Passion to Self "fortress" Guarded to teeth armed warriors, or rather, painted in bright colors of the figures. The main hall was accomplished by a grand historical panorama, illustrating the life of the hero from birth to death (on the creation of sculptures and paintings of the circular panel took 15 years and 100 million rupees). Enthusiastic visitors discussed the episodes well known since childhood, and it seemed to me that the conference was replaced by the patron, and mythological parashuras gave way to the historical Shivaji.
Jews: "Saturday oil workers"
Followers of Judaism live in the West, South and Northeast of India. For 80% of these "Bene-Israel", "Children of Israel", – Conan became a reception home many many centuries ago. One version will build them to the descendants of the knee of Judah, the other connects with Babylonian Jews. In his own legends, Bene-Israel is told about the 14th centuries held in India since their ships crashed on the reef near the village of Navroan to the south of Bombay: seven married couples were saved, which and gave life to subsequent generations. Many Jews are now worn by Navgancar – "Less from Nagua". Konkan’s neighbors called Bene-Israel "Saturday wrappers", Since those engaged in agriculture, drove oil from coconuts, and on Saturdays rested. Nobody oppressed them – all needed in oil. Yes, and the Jews themselves, whose sacred books died in shipwreck, gradually "Concanized". Saving a number of customs, they spoke to Marathi, Gujarati and Concanse dialects, entered the marriage unions with local, adopted clothes, names and rites. So it was until several centuries ago in those parts did not appear by someone David Rahabi, who either heard about the Indians who observed Saturday and practicing circumcision and name on the eighth day after birth, or discovered them on arrival. Legends narrate that he made "Check for truth" Turkging Jews, screaming at the bazaar of different fish. The hostess of the house was surprised to see the guest in his hands, what a traditional ban is imposed on, and postponed views without fins and scales. Out of the rest, she prepared such dishes that Rahabi had no doubt. And then he took out Torah, began to teach the Concanty Jews Hebrew and build challenges at home. This is called the first stage of the religious revival of Bene-Israel. The second stage is connected with some Samuel or Ezekhal by Avekar, like many other Bene-Israel, who served in the army of the East India Company. When in 1796 he and his comrades were unexpectedly released from captivity Tip-Sultan (the ruler of the South Indian Principal Mysore and the Enemy of the British, heard about "Selected peoples"), Divekar swore to build in Bombay synagogue. He kept the word and thus attracted attention to a small, but cohesive community, which confidently joined the dynamic rhythm of the growing metropolis. Unlike Bene-Israel "Baghdad or Babylonian Jews" moved to India in the 1830s, they lived there historically, but left on her earth monumental trace. So, Albert Abdullah David Sassun (1818-1896) not only founded banking in his current understanding and laid the foundations of modern textile industry, but also gave bombing architectural uniqueness, building floating docks in the urban harbor on the west coast of India. A "Brand" Bombay – Triumphal Arch "Gate of India", Started at the beginning of the 20th century in honor of visiting the colony by King Georg V and Queen Maria, was completed on donations to the prosperous Jewish community. The outcome of Jews from India began after education in 1948 of Israel. Now there are more than 50 thousand Jews, of which 45 thousand are concancing Bene-Israel.
With a check in 1428
From Dervana, we turned back to the sea – to Muruda, the capital of the former Principality of Golyar, where until 1947, the rules of the Terrible Dynasty Siddi, immigrants from North Africa. Black slaves were brought in these edges in the XV century. Siddi managed to quickly advance and even laid a number of settlements, and in the XVII century, they took the famous Golyair – an impregnable forty in the sea at a distance of 1.5 kilometers from Muruda: the fortress and gave the name of the entire principality.
We are flooded to the ruins of the fort, not under the ruins of the guns, but it was still scary, because several dozen people were stuffed at the Utoy Sailing Jewish. It was even harder to be unloaded on slippery and time stones and squeeze through a close crowd, expected loading in the opposite way. Who saw in the fortress, however, with more than the disadvantage, we got into the world, preserved, if not in the form of a dilation, then in mirages created by the fantastic decor and guide stories, the whole story of a narrow path stretched along the Arabian Sea. Powerful walls of 12 meters high and sowing their tiers with tiers of cannons near the boys, destroyed by the throne halls, female chambers and mosques, overgrown with ribbons, broaching bushes and unexpected palm stones among piles, the vast ocean on the one hand and the roof of the Muruda on the other It was possible to admire the clock. Although Golyar has long taken a strong place in all guidebooks, foreigners fall here rarely. Fantastic ruins, rather a popular place for excursions of Indian schoolchildren and family picnics. Having finished with the deeds, the realtors look here: the Indians are the townspeople in nature, and the plots along the Arabian Sea are now enjoyed with colossal demand. There are also the Russians who acquired cozy villas in the environment of mango gardens for a long time. European, Slavic features were viewed under whose thick burial, who watched the bustle crabs of Liliputs on the shore, to my question "Where Are You From?" replied: "I am from Konkan" – Vasily already really associated himself with these edges.
. Ravi pulled on the highway at dusk, but unexpected shine and noise in the roadside village made us slow down. Here, in the Condifer, Muharraram was celebrated – the first month of the year of Muslim Souluscript (Hijra): so we found themselves in 1428 for a couple of hours. At the entrance to the main street leading to the mosque, there was a table with cups, and smiling Muslims treated us with a sherbet – a sweet mixture of water with milk, pink petals and almonds.
The first one I talked to, was Afr Karim Malim – the leader of Vatagi boys, a dense ring of overlapped Tabut – the symbolic coffin killed in the sacred Kerbal of Imam Hussein, the grandson of the Prophet Mohammed. In memory of his martyrdom, which came to Muharram, the Muslims of the whole world annually observe ten-day mourning. Made of thick paper with a cloth and decorated with slices of mirrors Tabuta Concanse Muslims-Sunnites rose to three or four meters up and reminded the chariot of Hindu gods in which those are taken to the festive ceremonies. I asked Afran: "Why Sherbet? I heard that Muslims refuse food?" Afran praised: "Hussein suffered – even the water was not allowed to get drunk. We do not want this anyone", – With these words, he threw up a handful of cracked Cardamom Seeds, which were happily caught and sent rustic boys. It was the last day of mourning, and the tabood slowly moved towards the cemetery, where he was intended to omit him with all the honors to the grave. Unexpectedly, the Muslim jumped out on the road: a half-closed eye, he twisted in the beat beating near the drum. "The feast was settled in him – something like a religious mentor", – explained Afran. Woman, according to the type of Htu, quickly leaned, took a pinch of dust from under the feet of obsessed and attached to his forehead. "In our village and the Hindus celebrate Muharram, only they spend their rite – Puja. Now, from the whole village of babies, everyone will be punished under Tabutt – it will bring the child with happiness, no matter how religion it belonged".
Muslims: Traders or warriors?
Arabian Sea, it is Arabic, separates India from the eponymous Peninsula and the Persian Gulf countries. This obstacle was never irresistible, and the first Muslims who fled from the bass from civil engineers were in the Konkan area in 699. Others followed by other – sailors, shipbuilders and merchants – from the coastal cities of the Middle East and North Africa. The Arabs married local women and learned their tongue, shut down along a well-known Sea, erected mosques and submitted "foreman", appointed Hinda rajami. The arranging of the Arabs ringed the origin of the general edges, the Sunnism of the Shafitsky direction and trade – they knew how to get along with the local population and with each other. So it lasted until the 15th century. Then the situation has changed. From the north-west of India to the Deansky plateau began to sew the Turks, and later the Mongol. In the XIV century, south of the mountains of Windhiya, which shared India north and south, there was a powerful state of bachmanids, and five sultanates gradually grew up on his debris, each of which rushed to the sea, that is, through the passals of Western Hhata in Conan. Muslims from the mainland – no longer merchants, and warriors from different currents and sect Islam – even before the arrival of Portuguese and the British – they took most of the convenient ports and part of the islands, in which Bombay. So the peace-loving mood of the first Muslim settlers was disturbed, and they were drawn into a long battle for Concan.
I did not want to write about cows – it is the usual plot for India, but it fails. First in susta we met the so-called so-called "Cow traces", That is, dents on the stones – Gujarat loves Krishna, the eighth earthly incarnation of Vishnu, and believes that God-Shepherd Pasch’s cows there. Then we told us how the cow discovered "Did worthless" place where Parashurama was aiming from Luka. And here we are approaching Goa. In the Indian cow languages - "Guy", But in ancient times, this word sounded like "GO" and "Gavi" – The same Indo-European root has been preserved in Russian "Beef". Once here existed the city of God, or Govapuri, "Cow Grad", named so because one day Krishna admired local cows. On the conclusion, the official language of the state, is called Homantak, and the Word itself is interpreted as "Putting cows".
In the resort Goa, we did not allow themselves to stay because of the universal atmosphere of relaxation. Submitting to the travel assignment, we moved on south, to another ethnic and language world – the state of Karnataka, where Dravidi-Cannadig live and speak in the Kannad language. I was no longer surprised when Ravi brought us to the hotel on the top of the Rock, built on the wreckage of the Shivaji fortress, in the courtyard of which stood a stone horse, measured waiting for her fearless sediment. From here to the Gokarna – the famous place of pilgrimage of Hindus-Shivaitov – there were no more than 60 kilometers. Not surprised by the fact that Sivaji himself, a zhiva fan, after the next raid on local land, also arrived in the Gokarn for ritual ablution, in the Hinduism of purifying from many species. And calmly perceived the story that Gokarn was "Cow’s ear".
In general, the Hindu mythology calls the creator of the world Brahma, the keeper – Vishnu, the destroyer – Shiva. However, some texts claim that the creation of the world of Brahma first commissioned Shiva. He was lazy and then heaven at the sight of Brahma’s creation and began to strike the earth. She wrapped a cow and, soothing Shiva, offered to climb into her mouth, and go through the ear. Naturally, it is believed that this story has happened here, as evidenced by the landscape itself: if you look at the Arabian Sea, on the banks of which this holy city is located, the spots of Western Hhata will rise around him – than not "Cow’s ear"?
After the fussy Goa, Gokarn is perceived as a breakthrough in eternity: everything has been preserved here, as it was not that with Shivaji, but also with Shiva, – narrow streets, spooking temples, waiting for the clients of Brahmans and Crowds of Bogomoles. In the city you can still see rare samples of a wooden openwork, adorning the facades of the autonous houses. But the main thing – at every turn you get drunk in the plot of "Mahabharata" or "Ramayana", Ancient Indian epic poems. The ablution here is performed both in the sea and in a huge sacred reservoir – Cotitirtha, who brothers Pandava from "Mahabharata" filled with water from all Indian rivers. This reservoir is famous in the Indian south and because here the ancient ritual of the sacrifice of fire, which came from time "Rigveda". Associated with the death of the head of the family, an expensive ritual, bringing exemption from subsequent rebirths, is sent in the premises located around the perimeter of the quotitir, paid priests. Here and there is a smack, carrying away to the celestial sacrifices of the gifts: born oil, grain, bananas, sometimes cuts of silk or brocade.
The main temple – Shiva in the image of Mahabaleswara, "Great Power", – appeared here thanks to the ten-lead demon Ravan, antagonist frame from "Ramayana". Himalate in the Himalayan snow, he lost her shiva, and he pulled out of his own heart atmali. The concept of this concept is extremely difficult, if we consider that "atma" – this is the soul, and "Lingam" – Children’s Siva Symbol and Sivaitis Object. When Ravana tried to forward this very atmali in his kingdom on the island of Lanka, then the tricky Ganesh, the discrepancy of obstacles, offered the tired demon to hold him. Ravana agreed, and Ganesh immediately dropped atmalins to the ground, in which the shrine immediately addressed, yes so here and remained.
Mahabaleshwar’s Temple to cover hard – his walls support the houses of the priests and shops with a commodity to make Puji. Neinduses in the temple are not allowed – the Dravidian south, to which carnatak belongs, extremely strict in this respect. It consoaled that the Hindus could not see the atmaligam in the ground and located in the deep altar niche: what he looks, only serving his priests know. They say, the fingerprints of the ravans are still visible on it.
… in a straight line from Surat to Gokarna – about 600 kilometers, but when, flying in Bombay, we said goodbye to Ravi at the airport on the territory of Goa, the speedometer showed 2,413 kilometers – this is what the narrow trails did, for which we, circle around bays, bays and river Delta, went to the sea and returned to the mountains again.
In the Bombaist airport named after Shivaji, we went on a taxi and met in finally many more religion – Sikhism. Sikh turned out to be a taxi driver – in the turban, according to the custom, hiding did not cut the hair, and with a neatly poanted mesh and laid under the chin. For Bombay, a similar meeting – rarity: Most Sikhov lives in northwest India.
To the airport drove up in the predestinous twilight – the mighty hero was already waiting in his place: "Moid with a speed of hand / sitting on a bronze horse". Inhapping the air with the mixed aromas of the Arabian Sea and Western Hhata, we mentally said goodbye to the rider granted us with a close look of the rider, who became a mileage for his possessions. You did not want to leave the Konkan.