By virtue of a wide variety of natural-climatic conditions, the territory of Yemen can be divided into five natural regions.
Alpine areas (Jebel) stretched with two chains through the entire territory of the country. The Western Mountain Chain is focused from the North-West to the southeast and includes several mountain ranges – the Southern Siege of the Hijaz, Sirat (El Sarat), Hufash, Rayma, Ash Shub, and DR. These old and highly weathered mountain systems, whose height reaches 3 km (the highest point of the country and the entire Peninsula – Mountain of En-Nabi-Shab, or Jabal-Nabi-Shuyb, height according to various data 3600-3760 m), are mixed with numerous high plateates, Dissected deep valleys. Step-going to the sea shores in the West and the south, these mountains form many agricultural plains-oases.
In the south of the country, the Western Mountain chain intersects with stretching in the meridional direction by the old highlands of the Southern Shore, forming the so-called Hadramaut – a mountain range knot, abounding with extremist volcanoes and stepped plateauts (often Hadramout also called southern coastal plains). To the northeast, the gradually decreased stripping of the mountains and Nagrai, moving in the eastern of the country in low reservoir.
In the east and north, mountain slopes smoothly go to the endless sands of the Rub-El Hali desert, or "Empty quarter of the Arabian Peninsula". Two her "Language" – The rocky deserts of Ramot-Es Sabenine and Shikak El Maatif – quite far away in the mountain areas of Yemen, forming extensive lifeless highlands with heights of up to 1000 meters.
The coastal area along the shores of the Red Sea, the Aden Bay and the Arabian Sea forms an extended strip covering the whole country from the South and the West (a total length of about 2,400 km with a width of 3 to 60 km). Unlike the other shores of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen’s shores quite abundantly irrigate – about one and a half thousand temporary rivers escape from the mountains, among which there are almost permanent – Maur, Ban, Khajr and Masila (the latter is the only full-fledged river on the Arabian Peninsula, and the rest are rolled for 3-4 months a year, which is amazingly much for local conditions). Along the coast of the Red Sea stretches the flat semi-desert plain Tihama, which continues on the territory of Saudi Arabia.
The fifth natural geographic area of the country – numerous islands scattered along the entire coast. Of the 120 Yemen Islands, most are located in the Red Sea and are low desert landclocks, crowning powerful coral reefs. Also, several small islands are in the Gulf of Aden, and in the Arabian Sea, almost 200 km from the southern coast of the country, lies the largest island – Sokotra – noticeably different from the rest of Yemen’s territory by a softer climate and a large number of greenery (dragon is growing in natural conditions. tree and giant aloe).
Natural Flora and Fauna Yemen are almost completely displaced by cultural rocks, so for the once very green country is characterized by obvious signs of desertification. Tikhama is covered with mangrove forests and grass-shrub thickets of semi-deserted type. In the foothills not occupied by agriculture, some evergreen plants like palm trees, fakes, sicomor and acacia are preserved, while plantations of tropical fruits, cotton, coffee and low evergreen shrub Catha (Catha Edulis) are located on more elevated areas, and under pressure The latter is reduced even the plantation of the famous Yemeni coffee. On the mountain plateau grow sorghum, vegetables and spices. However, the country is famous for its wild plants from which gummirabik, gum and incense. On Sokotra in one form or another, relic evergreen forests are preserved.
The animal world is very poor – besides the desert foxes, snakes, rabbits and other rodents, as well as disappearing mountain rams and gazelles, the only living beings that can be seen in Yemen are migratory birds and amazingly diverse ichthyofauna seas.
Dangerous plants and animals
Separate problem pose a deserted flora and fauna. A lot of poisonous plants and dangerous insects throughout the country, so when traveling through the northeastern areas, Yemen should carefully listen to the advice of conductors and local residents.
Flora and the sea fauna can also represent a certain danger to the unprepared swimmer. Along the southern coast of the country there are quite strong and sustainable seaside currents, so it is not recommended to remove away from the shore without special means of salvation. There is a certain danger of obtaining poisoning from pollution of sea water – within the territorial waters of Yemen, more than 6 thousand cargo ships take place annually (this problem is especially relevant in the region of Adena and Bab El Mongangian Strait), so many poisonous substances fall into the water as the goods themselves and from fan systems of ships.