Spitsbergen, without exaggeration, — One of the most unusual places on the planet. See crystal clear glaciers, raised by the fjords of the coast, mountain ranges, endless expanses of the ocean, polar bears, walrles and birds without leaving home — With Panorars Airpano.
This extensive polar archipelago, located in the Arctic Ocean, is the most northern part of the Kingdom of Norway and at the same time a demilitarized zone.
In 1920, the so-called Spitsbagegen Treatise was signed: Norway, USA, Denmark, France, Japan and a number of other countries identified the international legal status of the archipelago. According to the document on Svalbard, which was previously free of free territory, was established by the sovereignty of Norway, but the contract participants were given an equal right to operate its natural resources and territorial waters. The USSR joined the Svalbard Treatise in 1935.
And although so far the contract has more than 50 participating States, only Russia continues to conduct economic activities here. As a result, the second largest city of the Barentsburg archipelago, located on the island of West Svalbard, is Russian, and two more Russian settlements — Pyramid and Grumman — were installed not so long ago, at the end of the XX century. On Svalbard, two official languages: Norwegian and Russian, and despite the fact that the archipelago is controlled by Norway, for his visit to citizens of Russia, the visa is not needed.
Climate Schitsberena — Stern Arctic, although in the West he is softened with warm spitsbergen flow (part of the Gulf Stream). Nevertheless, the average temperature of the hottest month — July — It is only +4.4 °C, and the first snowfalls often begin in August. In such conditions, only low and cold-resistant plants are able to survive: dwarf birch, polar will, mosses and lichens. On the glaciers there are red algae, giving snow and ice amazing pinkish hue. The unique feature of Spitsberegin is the extremely low content of microbes, dust and parasites — they are too cold here.
On the islands are white bears, the sands, the smallest of the reindeer — Spitsbergensky, as well as whales, nerves, Greenland seals, marine hares, walruses and beluga. The only view of birds permanently residing on the archipelago, — This is a polar (white) partridge, but in the warm season here you can see up to 90 other types of feathers.
On Svalbard, three reserves and three reserves were created, which occupy a total of about half of its territory. Another local «Treasure» In addition to nature, the abundance of minerals is. Coal mining began in the 20th century, and this led to the emergence of numerous settlements and mines. Nowadays, part of the resources have already been exhausted, and for this reason there are quite a few objects of objects. But due to the low biological activity of the medium (mentioned above the absence of microbes), the structures abandoned many years ago still look like new.
In Barentsburg, Russian scientists are working in various specialties: geophysics, geologists, archaeologists, biologists, glaciologists, geographers. There is a meteorological station of Roshydromet, as well as the world’s northernmost station in the world for registration of cosmic rays. Norwegian Longyir (the capital and largest city of Svalberena) is the world’s northernmost place with the number of residents in excess of 1000 people. It is not surprising that the world’s most northern airport is also here.
Another interesting object of the archipelago is «Ship’s repository day» — Seed Bank, created in 2006. Not noticeable ground «portal» leads to a warehouse equipped on a 120-meter depth: permafrost and low tectonic activity will allow crops samples to survive any possible cataclysms and, if necessary, save humanity from hunger.
In the mid-1920s, Svalbard became the base of polar aviation: the famous Norwegian traveler Ruled Amundsen and many others performed from here their flights. You can now get to the archipelago not only by air, but also by water. Thousands of tourists arrive in the cruise season here to admire the unique nature of Spitsbengen.