Oaxaca or Oaxaca de Juarez (Oaxaca de Juarez) – City in southern Mexico, the capital of the Oaxaca of the same. Located in the mountains of Sierra Madre Del Sur, 480 km from Mexico City. Population – 258 008 people (2010).
Unlike many other Mexican cities, Oaxaca did not touch the industrialization, thanks to this, the atmosphere of the quiet town of New Spain has been preserved here. The historic center of the city was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Thanks to numerous architectural and historical attractions, both in the city and in its surroundings, Oaxaca is one of the most popular tourist destinations of Mexico.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards on the site of modern Oaxacs there were settlements of the Sapoteks and Mishteches, which were in the sphere of influence of the neighboring city, known now as Monte Alban.
Colonial Oaxaca was founded in 1532 by Spanish settlers who came after Ernan Cortes. At first they founded a city called Antequera (Antequera), Oaxaca is still known under the nickname «Green Antera» VERDE ANTEQUERA).
The city received its current name only in 1832, and since 1872, Oaxaca de Juares became officially referred to in honor of the National Hero of Mexici Benito Juarez, born nearby.
Mescal (Mezcal) – Traditional for Mexico alcoholic drink from the fermented juice of agave. The most common variety — tequila. Entitled «Mescal» Currently, all distilled alcoholic beverages based on agave are available, with the exception of the tequila itself.
Most of the Mescal in Mexico produced in Oaxaca.
Mescal manufacturing technology is mostly the same as in Tequila. The cores of Agava are baked in stone jamashes of conical shape, put on charcoal, covered with layers of palm fibers, earth and withstand there for two or three days. Agave prepared in this way is saturated with smoky aroma. Agava types used for making Meskal: Agava Cupreata, Agava Potatorum, Agava Wislizeni.
Then the juice is being usedded within 3 days. Unlike tequila, when saving the juice of agave, sugar is not added. Since the middle of the 20th century, Mescal is made double distillation. Since then, the standard fortress is 38-43% about. Until this period, a single distillation was used, which gave a fortress about 25% about.
Mescal has a more strong taste and fragrance compared to tequila. There are many types of mescal, significantly different from each other by taste properties.
One of the main attractions of the surroundings of Oaxaca is a major archaeological complex Monte Alban (Monte Alban), Located 9 km from the city center and included in UNESCO World Heritage List.
Monte Alban is the very first city in Mesoames and for almost a thousand years old played a significant role as the political and economic center of the Sapoteki civilization.
Monte Alban was founded in 500 g. to N. NS., And about 200 years. NS. He was already the capital of a large expansionist state, which managed mostly in Oaxaca Highlands and interacted with other states in the region.
The city lost its political importance by the end of the classic period (approximately 500-750. of our era) and then almost abandoned.
The second most important archaeological complex of the Oaxaca region is an ancient city Mitla (Mitla), Located 50 km from Oaxaca.
Settlement in place Mitla appeared about 500 to n. NS., However, the most ancient of the preserved buildings are dating 200 year. NS. Mitla was one of the largest centers of Precucumbian Indian crops of Sapoteks and Mishtekov. As the neighboring city of Monte Alban is elevated, the population gradually left Mitla, and the city became more and more turned into a cult complex.
During his heyday (XV century), the population of Mitla exceeded 10 thousand people, the city was spreading along the Rio Mitla river for a distance of more than 1 kilometer. About 1000 years. NS., With the beginning of the invasion of Mishtekov, the city was surrounded by a stone wall, the citadel was erected and the residence of the Supreme Priest-ruler of the Sapoteks was located here, and after the fall of the city of Monte Alban — And their capital.
In 1494, the city was captured and plundered by Aztec, and in 1520 he was discovered by Spanish conquistadors.
Yagul (Yagul) – Precucumbovo Sorcement (now the place of archaeological excavations), located 34 km from Oaxaca.
Ancient traces of settlement are dating 3 thousand. to N. NS. The city was founded in 5 in. to N. NS. Sapotheki, later the city captured and developed Mishteci. About 900 g. N. NS. Several pyramids were built, and in 1300-1400. – Multiple palaces.
Sobor Nourera Senora de la Asuncion (Catedral de Nuestra SEñOra de la Asuncion) – The cathedral church, famous for its unique interpretation of the baroque style in architecture. Located on Sokal Square. Its construction began in 1535, was consecrated July 12, 1733.
Church of Santo Domingo de Gusman (Templo de Santo Domingo de Guzman) – Church and former monastery in Oaxaca. The complex was founded by Dominican monks in 1570 and was slowly built over the next two centuries. The monastery acted from 1608 to 1857.
In the midst of the revolution in 1860, the church was turned into a stable, and in monastic cells staged a barracks for soldiers. Only at the beginning of the 20th century the church was released and consecrated again. Worship in it resumed in 1938.
In the period from 1994 to 1999, the entire complex was carefully renovated. Now in the monastery cells, valuable items found by archaeologists in the vicinity of Oaxaca during the excavations of the ancient settlements of Podovekov, Misteches and Aztecs.
Casa de Benito Juarez (Casa de Benito Juarez) – House where the former President of Mexico Benito Juares held his childhood.
Benito was born in a modest Sapotek village of Guelatao, located 60 km north-east of Oaxaca. Parents died when the child was 3 years old, and at the age of 12, Benito found a job in the House of Book Twist Antonio Salanueva in Oaxaca. The master saw in the boy a great potential and helped get education. In the house of Salanueva, a binding workshop has been preserved and several commemorative things Benito.
Regional Museum Oaxaca (Museo Regional de Oaxaca) – Museum of History and Culture of the region, with exhibits of civilizations of Sapoteks, Mishtekov and Olmekov, as well as the epochs of colonization and revolution, the most amazing of which is the Treasure Collection from the Tomb 7 in Monte Alban, found by the archaeologist Alphonso Camas in the 1930s.
Rufino Tamayo Museum (Rufino Tamayo Museum) – This art museum with a collection of subjects of the Dovespan period was donated by the city of Oaxaca His most famous artists Ruthino Tamayo.