Official propaganda in the DPRK: ideas and methods

This article is written for the magazine "Problems of the Far East" In the summer of 1992. For this collection underwent relatively minor processing.

In the modern world it is difficult if it is not impossible, to find a country that could compete with the DPRK on the intensity of propaganda processing of the population. Perhaps in this regard, North Korea, apparently, has no equal. Repeatedly proclaimed by the leadership of the DPRK, the orientation for an extraeconomic (first of all – ideological) stimulation a lot contributes to such development of propaganda in the country. Almost completely subordinated to the propaganda tasks not only activities of the media, but also Sun Korean art and literature.

The purpose of this article is to briefly consider the main theses and methods of modern North Korean propaganda and introduce them to the Russian reader. It is only about the current state of propaganda work in the DPRK only here, since we cannot concern such curious topics as the evolution of North Korean propaganda in recent decades or its activities outside the country.

This article is somewhat unusual for the material used, as it is based primarily on personal observations and materials collected by the author during their stay in the DPRK and during numerous conversations with North Korean. Of course, when it was prepared to a certain extent, the information of the North Korean press was attracted, as well as South Korean publications, but the basis was the basis of personal impressions. The author seemed that with this approach to the selection of the material, the article would acquaint a slightly large integrity. How correct was this decision – to judge the reader.

The characteristic feature of Korean propaganda is a complete monopoly of official government bodies on information that is not violated not only by internal (legal, semi-alone and illegal printing), but also by external (impaired, foreign propaganda literature) competitors. In order to more effectively disaggregate within the country and protect the population of North Korea from unwanted impacts from the outside, the leadership of the DPRK holds a policy of tough information self-insulation. Although many authoritarian regimes tried to limit the penetration of unwanted information from abroad, few people can compare with North Korea in this regard. The population of the DPRK is in a kind of information vacuum and deprived of the opportunity to use any other, except for official, sources of information about the external world. In a certain sense, the DPRK is a unique example "Sealed" In terms of society. With the exception of a few elite, North Koreans know about the external world only that they allow them to know the government, and the selection of this permitted information is carried out in tough criteria. Thanks to this information tightness, North Korean propaganda acts in very special conditions, it simply has no rivals.

Nowadays the most "Natural" The source of unwanted information can be radio – simple, cheap, portable, capable of receiving programs transmitted from very large distances. Therefore, the control over the broadcasting of the North Korean authorities pays the most attention. At the same time, Pyongyang did not follow the former Soviet example and faster foreign radio stations. The authorities of the North found cheaper and, at the same time, a more reliable solution to this problem: they simply banned the sale of radio receptions with free setup. Those small lamp receivers that can be bought in Korean stores have a fixed setting on the wave of official Pyongyang radio. Of course, a person who knows in radio engineering could remake them without much difficulty. To prevent this, security bodies from time to time conduct inspector checks of all registered receivers. In addition, control "Right" The use of radio receivers is an important task that the heads of the so-called are performed "folk groups" <= 1>. According to some stories, the head "People’s Group" at times can break into one or another apartment among the night to check whether there is an unregistered successor there. True, at least one of my North Korean friends had access to a normal radio, but this access was certainly associated with considerable risk.

In the DPRK, the distribution of any foreign newspapers and magazines is fully prohibited. Of course, they enter the specialists of the largest libraries, but even there is extremely limited access to them, they, as a rule, can not be used by philologists. From foreign books in open areas of libraries there are only technical reference books and publications on natural sciences, the art and socio-political literature all goes to specialhran. Were not the exception and publication of other socialist countries, as even in the 1970s. Official Soviet (and, more, Polish or, say, Hungarian) Printing has undergone much less censorship than Korean Printing.

The possibility of obtaining any unwanted information through the through private contacts with foreigners in North Koreans is also absent, since unauthorized communication with foreigners is categorically prohibited, and the violation of this prohibition may end in large troubles. Those few foreign citizens who live in Pyongyang can only deal with specially trained and carefully proven people who, as it can be assumed, at most of them are either personnel officers or agents of special services.

Of course, almost do not go to Koreans and abroad. Some North Korean students, however, studied at different times in the USSR, China, some other countries, but, of course, there can be no talk about any tourist exchange. Abroad have the opportunity to ride only some representatives of the elite, and it is not too often. Except, however, are North Korean loggers who work at the Russian Far East from the end of the sixties. However, and there their contacts with the local population are generally limited to the authorities. Lumberjacks live in special villages that are rather reminiscent of camps, under the non-primary observation of the employees of the North Korean special services.

All this isolation, so to speak, spatial. But after all, contradictory ideas, as well as facts that question these installations, can penetrate the minds not only because of the border, but from the old literature, from the publications of past years. A person can read something superfluous or journal in some old book or a journal, or about Soviet care, or something else. To prevent this was found simple (and quite in the Spirit of Orwell) Exit: All literature, published more than 10 or 15 years ago, is in Special Chran and will be issued only to specialists with a special permission "competent authorities". It does not apply only to technical and reference literature <= 2>.

As a result of all these measures, the activities of the North Korean propaganda apparatus proceeds in very peculiar conditions. Monopoly on information in the DPRK is absolute in nature, official propaganda does not have to deal not only with internal, but also by external rivals. There is no need to manage counter-propaganda activities. Ordinary citizens receive only the information that is considered necessary to bring them to the authorities. Thus, almost ideal conditions for the formation of the world’s image in the minds of North Koreans, which is beneficial to the ruling layer.

Another characteristic of the Korean propaganda system is that it is without any fundamental changes has been around for decades, four qualitative. The current North Korean regime is generally formed by the mid-1950s. Of course, it should not be thought that he was unchanged all of these decades: the changes took place, and sometimes quite essential, but nevertheless, they did not wear a fundamental nature. It concerns this and North Korean propaganda. Its main provisions (the greatness of Kim Il Sen and his family, Chuchhesky nationalism, attacks in the United States and, especially, for South Korea) remained unchanged. As a result, in Korea, two or three generations of people have grown under the intensive impact of the same propaganda postulates.

The combination of these three factors: the emergency intensity of the propaganda, the stability of its main theses for decades and advocacy isolation of the country – makes Korean propaganda, and indeed an ideological life in the DPRK at a sort of exceptional and, because of this, quite interesting.

The main theme of North Korean propaganda is, of course, Kim Il Sen, his life and merit to the country. "Education of love for chief" (or, in other words, the attachment of the personality of the personality Kim Il Seine) in all official documents is considered as the most important task of propaganda. The methods of this upbringing were once borrowed from the USSR, but the current North Korean propaganda left far behind the Stalin samples. About the scale that accepted "Education of love for chief" can be judged by print, including those materials that fall abroad, but fully the scope of activities "Education of love for chief" those who could not have visited the DPRK, it is difficult to even imagine. Since the late 1970s, much attention is paid to the promotion of the personality of Kim Zhong Il – Son Kim Il Sen, who is officially proclaimed by his successor and "continuer of the great chuchhey revolutionary case". Not only the media, but also cinema, theater, literature tirelessly emphasize that with early adolescence Kim Il Sen became the great leader of the Korean people, who owes him to all. How sweats in one of the most frequently executed in the DPRK songs:

Who gave us the happiness of today?
His party gave us, he gave a leader.
On the way, the specified Grand Chief of Marshal Kim I Sray,
We will go without sparing your life!

And in Kim Il Sen, and Kim Jong Ira has something titlatura, postal nickname list. For example, Kim Il Sang has, among others, the following titles: "The Great Leader of our party and the people, the Marshal of the Mighty Republic, the Sun of the Nation, the Iron All-Following Communitor, the outstanding head of the International Communist and Revolutionary Movement, which first appeared in the five-thousandth history of our country the legendary hero". Since the 1970s. To most of these titles, the word is often added "father". Generally, paternalistic ideas about "ruler – father’s father", So popular in Confucianism, ordinary and in North Korean propaganda. Kim Il Saint is usually depicted as a wise and caring father, who does not leaving his attention to all his subjects. In one story, he stops to bring the old woman in his limousine on the road, to another – personally heads the treatment of the young worker injured during the accident, in the third – personally interested in the state of life of the disabled veterans. Some of the stories are not just frankly confusian in their ideology, but also simply represent the overflowing of famous scenes of Korean and Chinese Confucian mythology. For example, all residents of North Korea are well known for the story about how in 1945. The great leader engaged in public affairs, drove past the native village twice, but never drove there, for he did not want to spend a single minute of his precious time on anything that was not related to the people’s care. Only for the third time, after the persistent persuasion, he finally agreed to visit Mangnde. Any person familiar with the Far Eastern tradition, this plot is known more than good. Exactly the same legend was told about the famous Korean commander Kim Yu Blue (VII in.) However, the initial source is most likely the story of the Chinese wise of the Emperor Yuu.

Kim Jong Ira also at the time when his elevation was once again started, called the term stranged on our hearing "Center party", But in the end, the title was entrenched behind him "Favorite leader". Even if the name of Kim Il Senya or Kim Jong Ira is not mentioned in an article or a broadcast, each Korean knows perfectly to whom one or another titles are attached to and will never confuse, for example, "Great Leader" (i.e. Kim Il Seine) with "Favorite leader" (i.e. Kim Zhong Irol) <= 3>. Special words and even grammatical forms that can only be used in relation to Kim Ir Seine or Kim Jong Iru. Their names are always recruited in North Korean prints with special bold fonts. Moreover, North Koreans are already taught in elementary school "Right" Building phrases with mention of the name of the leader and his son. This, so to speak, "Court grammar" prescribes to ensure that none of these two sacred names it turns out to be liked by the Lord, in the middle and end of the phrase, but I would definitely be at her beginning.

Of course, the biography of Kim Il Sayna (more precisely, its official, very far from the truth option) is one of the most important items undergoing in the North Korean school. Since the 1980s. Biography of Kim Jung Ira added to it. Schoolchildren should not only memorize countless stories about real or (more often) fictional exploits Kim Il Senya, but also to know all his pedigrees. With quotes from the works of Kim Il Sena, not only any article or book should begin, but also a lecture at the Institute or University. Sometimes these quotes have a remote attitude to the content of the article. For example, a collection of pharmacopoeia begins with such a quotation from the Great Leader: "In biology, the most important thing is to achieve efficient use of existing resources". The article (quite scientific) on the structure of Korean vowels opens by the following revelation: "And in the linguistics it is necessary to establish a Juche and systematically develop our language so that people using it have experienced feelings of national pride and dignity" <= 4>.

Since the early 1970s. All adult Koreans are obliged to wear icons with the image of Kim Il Sena, and his portraits are located above the entrance and access of anyone, even the smallest railway station, many institutions, pass factories. Often on top over portraits There are even small visors protecting them from rain (such visors could be seen over icons in medieval monasteries). Portraits Kim Il Siena hang in every room of any institution, in every workshop, class or audience, finally, even in metro and trains cars. In residential buildings of private houses, a portrait of Kim Il Sayna from the beginning of the 1980s invariably renovates with the portrait of his successor son Kim Zhong Ira.

Naturally, these portraits are in Korea objects of almost religious cult. When the author studied at the University Kim Il Sena and lived in a hostel, then it was forbidden to hang on that wall of the room on which the portrait was, any extraneous images. Every morning portraits are cleaned with a special brush. For storage of brushes and other care facilities for portraits, there are special boxes, the attitude to which is the most trembling. Damage to the portrait, even unintently, may end very sad. One of the most famous North Korean ranks of the 70s – the former head of the 9th Department of Political Protection Department of the State.Caeson (North Korean security service) Kon Thak Ho fled to South Korea after accidentally spoiled the portrait of Kim Il Sena and was caught by his colleagues at the crime scene. Apparently, he knew well in his experience than such an act threatens <= 5>.

The great set of monuments Kim Il Seine is scattered across the country. In fact, Kim Il Sen and his family members are the only people who can be seen in the DPRK. April 16, on the birthday of the North Korean leader (and this day is the main holiday of the DPRK) these monuments become a place of compulsory pilgrimage of the local population. All Koreans are obliged on this day to come to the statue of Kim Il Hayen, which is located nearby their home and, having committed several belongings before it, to impose a bouquet of flowers to her fit.

Another peculiar form of monuments Kim Ir Seine and Kim Zhong Iru – these are massive stone steles, the number of which is huge, because they are hardly installed in any place, where at least once visited the Great Leader or his heir. Even benches and pebbles, on which Kim Il Saint rested during his trips around the country. I remember somehow walking in Moranbon Park a good autumn day, I saw a small wooden bench. With his explicit old-fashionedness, she was very unlike those small stone benches that sometimes met in the park, and, in addition, shuffled a dazzling new blue paint. However, her features were not limited to this. Nickel plated (or chrome plated?) Chain, and a small obelisk with an inscription was spawned near: "This number of such a month is such something (it seems, 1956 – a.L.) the year of the Great Leader sat down to relax on this bench". Often on these steles, the ODA in honor of the Great Leader, but sometimes you can read the statements that Kim Il Sen did, having visited in this place. So, on one of the sightseeing sites in the mountains famous for its paintings, Kymgansan can be seen a very solid monument with the inscription: "Oh what beautiful mountains! Kim Il Saint." Only 22 such monument was installed in Kymgansan <= 6>. In Korea, love to report the weight of these grand structures from the monolithic stone. So, stele at the entrance to underground bunkers, where during the war, the General Staff of the North Korean army was located, weighs 400 tons. However, it is far from other grand facilities built in honor of Kim Il Sena in Pyongyang: his statues with a height of 22 m, 170-meter monument of Juche idea <= 7>and grand triumphal gates. In total, 35 thousand diverse monuments Kim Il Seine are located on the territory of the DPRK

The official ideology of the DPRK is the so-called "Juche’s ideas". Nomination of these ideas as a counterweight "Imported" Marxism began in the mid-1950s., When Kim Il Saint sought to free himself from Soviet influence. A detailed consideration of this eclectic political and philosophical doctrine is far from the framework of our article, but it must be emphasized that the Koreans themselves are perceived by the Koreans as a simple set of works by Kim Il Sen and Kim Jong Ira. These works are published by huge circulations, tirelessly comment and are studied by the entire population of the country from Mala to Great at mandatory meetings "The study of the ideas of the leader". The main form of studying these works is to memorize them. According to my observations, students of Pyongyang University named after Kim Il Senya is about third of the total study time. For a better study of the ideas of Kim Il Senya in most institutions and enterprises there are special "Rooms Studying Wheel Ideas" (explicit influence of Soviet "Leninsky rooms" In their original, prevailing even in the 1930s, the form). Quotes have a lot of distribution, the tradition of compiling which came to Korea from China "cultural revolution". However, if in China in those confused times there was only one common to all "Little red book", then a lot of such books have been released in Korea (always small, but not always red), each of which is intended for a particular group of the population. I managed to see two such quitters (both – Kim Jong Ira): for young workers and for students of the university, and a marriage was mounted on the latter: "For internal use". Students periodically rent credits for the knowledge of these quotes.

Studying the biography of Kim Il Siena begins in kindergarten. I had to go several times "exemplary" Children’s institutions and see how in practice this science is carried out. The spectacle is, I must say quite impressive. In every kindergarten there is a special room, in the very center of which is a big layout of Mangrove (native village Kim Il Senya), on the wall – pictures of childhood "Chief-Father" and his traditional portrait. All children and teacher before starting classes three times in the belt bowl portrait, repeating at the same time "Thank you, Marshal Father!". After the execution of this rite begins the lesson himself. The teacher in turn causes children and those showing on a mock by pointer, tonny children’s voices, but funny trying to imitate "adult" intonation and gestures, begin to tell: "Here the Father-Marshal played the war, preparing for the fight against Japanese imperialists" or "Here is the Father-Marshal, together with Mr. Kim XN Zhikom (Father Kim Il Sayna), handled myself by doing sports". The kids are trying to talk to the same pathetic tone as they usually hear on radio and television, just as threatening or enthusiastically swing their hands, but they do not work out: the tongue is brazed, gestures are strangely reminding the movements of the clockwork toys, so without smile to look at them impossible. After eating, all the kids should also choose a choir to thank Kim Il Sang for the care of them.

When the kid goes from kindergarten to primary school, he starts studying again "The history of the Great Leader", In the following circle, he passes her in high school and, finally, four semesters are read by sun "Revolutionary history of the Great Leader" At the institute. Since the eighties "revolutionary history of the Grand Chief" Added I "Revolutionary story of the beloved leader".

The decision of the propaganda tasks is subject to the School Education, the BB will not remain aside, even such, it would seem, knowingly apolitical objects as arithmetic. To show how this is done, I will quote only a couple of tasks from the corresponding North Korean textbook: "3 fighters of the Korean People’s Army destroyed 30 American soldiers. Skolly soldiers destroyed each of them?" After the child can calculate the number of dead imperialists, it can be offered such a task: "Great Leader Father Kim Il Saint in childhood received 9 apples. 3 He gave grandfather, 2 – Babushka, 1 – Father, 1 – Mother. How many apples he gave and how much he left?" <= 9>.

It should be noted that the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin in the DPRK not only not studied, but also for the most part, in fact prohibited. Almost all works of classics of Marxism -Lennism, as well as foreign work on Marxist (non-Chuche’s) philosophy are stored in special library departments and are available only to specialists (for special permissions). For students, it was published, however, a small collection of excerpts from the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, who, most reminiscent of the usual quote. No need to say that the quotes are selected only to those who do not contradict the ideas of the Juche and the current "lines of party". Considering the role that the Deposited Marx played in the formation of Soviet dissident in the 1960s and 1970s., It is impossible not to admit that the actions of the Korean authorities, who equated Marx to subversive literature, can not be wise.

Curiously organized propaganda ensuring the elevation of Kim Zhong Ira, which is still in 1980. was officially proclaimed by the successor of his father. It was carried out so that this process looks like a natural, reaching from the bottom, unofficial and, as if almost contrary to the desires of Kim Jong Ira. Not by chance of portraits Kim Jong Ira initially, until the end of the 1980s., posted only in private houses, his works and his "Revolutionary story" At first studied in universities "informally" (allegedly because it was the spontaneous desire of studentism, which organized classes in – formally – fraudulent time).

Often refer to Kim Jong Ira even when it is a speech of IDT about AntiPonian partisan movement. In this regard, from the beginning of the eighties, North Korean propaganda, which never recognized the fact that Kim Il Saint served during the war in the Soviet Army, began to say that Kim Il Saint in 1941-1945. was located in the secret partisan camp on the Chinese border. There, in this camp, and was, they say, Born Kim Zhong Il. Of course, the camp was immediately "Restored" (that is, of course, built) and is open to compulsory organized pilgrimage. The subtext of the entire version of Packtusan is clear: the leader of the nationalist regime by definition could not be born in foreign land.

Korean propaganda sometimes even claims that two or three-year-old Kim Jong Il somehow managed to participate in the battles with the Japanese. In this regard, it is worth reminding that he was born in 1942, that is, by the end of the war he was three years old. In this regard, I remember the picture, which I saw in the Rail Museum: I am depicted on it Kim Zhong Suk – the wife of Kim Il Siena, who is surrounded by a few partisans, squeezing the gun in one hand, and in another – the future "Beloved leader", Shot from the Japanese. It should be noted that the glorious heroine in the image of the artist holds the Son as if she is going to use it as a living shield from Japanese bullets. The guide explained to us what is shown here "Combat childhood Kim Jong Ira".

From the propaganda of Merit Kim Il Sen and Kim Zhong Ira inseparable and the other topic – the glorification of the economic and political success of the DPRK: After all, Korean print stresses tirelessly that all these successes became possible only thanks to the wise leadership of the Great Leader and his successor. As indicated in one of the many theoretical articles on this topic overlooking the DPRK: "The main thing – under any conditions and in any atmosphere, unconditionally performing the guidelines of the leader, certainly realizing that he is the greatest person who play a decisive role in leadership by the masses and revolution"<= 10>.

Koreans constantly inspires that Korea – "Country of exemplary socialism", "Country Juche and Chollima" is one of the most developed and rich countries of the modern world, and the happy and abundant life of her citizens cause envy everywhere. It is curious that even Korean money became the instrument of this propaganda. On the bill in 1 won, one of the most common Korean slogans is written "Do not envy anyone in the world!".

Widely used in propaganda of nationalist (and chauvinistic) motifs, and after the collapse of the socialist camp, their significance has increased markedly. Events of long-standing history are actively used in propaganda, and they are depicted very modernizing, the affairs of the long-lasting days, the exploits of medieval commander and ancient kings are described in completely newspaper expressions. Of course, on the pages of Korean history textbooks during wars, Korea will always defend and always successfully, well, if the whole tolerate fails, then only due to the fault of the radar rulers. If the Korean troops operate outside the country, then this is either "struggle for the return of original land", Either "Bashes strikes aggression". Special attention is paid to the principality of the Cogger, which existed in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in the first centuries of our era. The Cogger Epoch is devoted to a noticeable part of those few historical studies that come out in modern North Korea. This underlined attention becomes clear if you remember that Pyongyang was the capital of Cogger. It is this idea "Pyongyang – Traditional Center" Sounds in all books on history, Seoul is mentioned there as in passing.

In newspapers and books are constantly quoted by the instructions of Kim Il Sayna that first of all it is necessary to study its history and culture. The schools and literature of other countries are not taught in schools, in the period from the mid-1960s before the early 1980s, foreign literature has not been published at all. In the last year and a half decades, however, there were occasions on the shelves to appear (and immediately disperse) translations of Western literature, but in general the picture did not change much: Koreans do not know almost nothing about the current situation in other countries, but also about their history and Culture. Thus, the improvised survey showed by me showed that approximately 3/4 students of the metropolitan university never heard of the Great French Revolution and cannot call any name of the foreign Western writer.

The second value of the topic of propaganda is "Association of Korea". In the newspapers and on the radio poverty and suffering, Southerners are constantly opposed by the abundant and happy life of their northern fellow citizens. When it comes to South Korea, propaganda constantly forms the image of a poor and innted country, and the South Korean government is represented in the literal sense of the word by clicking maniacs exposed to all thoughtless vices. If you believe Korean newspapers, the overwhelming majority of Yuzhan feeds on garbage on the lumps, walks in rags, is exposed to terrible torture in police stations and at the same time hotly envies the happy and rich life of Northerners. Contrast "ad" – Yuga "Paradise" – The North became the constant motive of the propaganda of the DPRK. It is not by chance that one of the books recently published in Pyongyang, telling about the south of the south, is named "From hell to paradise".

Often go to the Korea films about the horrors of life in the south, about the pursuit of Southean to live as well as northerners. Typical film of this kind — "Fate to the smithy chi and yn hee", published even in the 70s, but popular and so. His plot is simple and straightline. In 1945, two twin girls were born. Soon they were orphaned and one of them fell by circumstances fell to the north, where he became the famous singer, and the other – south. Unfortunate Yuzhanka Horodala, went to Rvan Ragia, then sang jazz songs in a cheap kabachea (Jazz – this is, of course, a symbol of decomposition and debauchery), I almost got into a public house and, in the end, became disabled. Her sister, meanwhile, happily lived in the north, sang and danced in the ensemble "folk music chuchhesky type" (hybrid of traditional Korean music with the Soviet pop thirtieth-forties, Dunaevsky’s era), lived in a beautiful apartment, wore sophisticated outfits. The film is completed by the fact that the heroine is crying from happiness at the foot of the statue of Kim Il Song on the Hill Mansud.

Not left away from this campaign, even such seemingly quite apolitical art as a cartoon. Often idst in Korea Master Serial Cartoon "Chanterelle and hedgehog", which says about the struggle between good "Forest people" and evil wolves. Fox and Hedgehog – Brave Army Scouts "Forest Phantom", Brilliantly owning Tekwondo techniques and all types of weapons. They will be able to penetrate the enemy headquarters and steal the plan of the upcoming attack. Army "Forest Phantom" Inflicts a crushing response and destroys a cunning enemy. So that the hints were more clear, army "Forest Phantom" dressed in a form similar to the one that is worn in the North Korean armed forces and uses the appeal "comrade", and cunning wolves are fed in the uniforms of the South Korean sample and call their officers "Your Excellency". The case is not limited to cartoons, for children produce and pictures with pictures, weathered in the same spirit of children’s militarism.

Very much attention is paid to the propaganda and other Korean slogan – "Support for own forces!". This slogan, who fell into Korea from China began the 1960s, and today plays an important role there, being (at least, officially) the main postulate of North Korean economic policy. It is curious that about the Chinese origin of the slogan, which is borrowed literally to the hieroglyph, now in the north they do not speak and the vast majority of the Northern Koreans about it and does not suspect. Phrase O "Revolutionary spirit support for own strength" I became just on duty in any material on economic topics, whether it is a newspaper article or a radio transmission. The activities of those enterprises that particularly successfully implement this slogan to life are promoted. So, a few years ago, North Korean stamp reported that the working Pyongyang Elevator themselves made the necessary diesel locomotive. Examples are often given and from the past, first of all – from the time of Antiappon partisan movement, which, generally speaking, is very often mentioned in Korean propaganda. The main idea is everywhere – the partisan movement could arise and exist (according to the official version – even to win) just because they were led by Kim Il Sen, that all his participants were "Flamely true" he and everywhere spent the slogan "Power Supports". In one of his articles "Nodon Synun", For example, talks about how partisans, imbued "Revolutionary Spirit Support for Own Force" In the field, weapons are repaired, welding damaged steel parts on the fire (!). Another article reports the triumph of the working Pyongyang elevator who produced themselves. locomotive. With propaganda slogan "Power Supports" Configured and characteristic of North Korean media, the desire to praise the economic cooperation of the DPRK with foreign countries. Starting from the sixties, Koreans are often simply removed from the plates obtained from abroad, which could point out its foreign origin. Of course, it is not usually mentioned in the press and participation of foreign specialists in various projects. In this regard, exception was not done even for the most friendly states.

I would like to say a few words about the means and methods of propaganda work. The main instruments of propaganda in Korea, as well as everywhere, are the media – print, radio and television.

The structure of Korean newspapers can easily imagine the one who saw the Soviet newspapers of the first post-war years, which at the time and served as a model for the emerging North Korean journalism. The main newspaper DPRK is "Nodon Synun" – organ of the Central Committee of the TPK, which occupies a special position among all the North Korean press, so its structure is quite indicative. On the first and second pages of this newspaper, the Messages of Kim Il Sayne are usually placed due to the border and its own official telegrams, articles on the economic success of Korea. There can also be read reports of visits of foreign delegations, articles about the greatness of Kim Il Sena and Kim Jong Ira. In the advantage of economic nature wears the third page, and the fourth filled with chronic notes and essays on different topics. Latest Pages is an international section. Almost all notes on international topics are either talking about the achievements of the economy of developing countries, or criticize US foreign policy. Special section that usually takes the fifth page dedicated to South Korea. The intonation of articles of the newspaper on various issues, of course, the same as in the entire North Korean propaganda: praising Kim Il Sen and Kim Jung Ira, sharp, almost hysterical criticism of the United States and South Korea, the glorification of the economic achievements of the DPRK (in the overwhelming majority of cases – imaginary) , Propaganda of Ideas Juche and stories about their vast popularity in the WC.

I must say that in Korea (as well as, in many other countries), there are other media, a simple person inaccessible, but intended for officials. For higher gansu, a special newspaper is published, which, as Koreans themselves told me, dates a lot more information about the outside world than "Nodon Synun". To be honest, until recently I was confident that at least in these closed publications contain more or less truthful information about the situation in the country and the world. What was my disappointment when I was able to get several copies of such a closed newspaper, intended for top officials. I found that in its tonality it is practically no different from ordinary Korean newspapers and that the newspaper "Truth" Brezhnev times compared to it – a sample of hard and truthful journalism. Thus, the information about South Korean affairs there is a report that the movement of buses on one of the high-speed roads greatly interferes with the surrounding peasants and causes them protests. Apparently, the subversive nature of this report was caused by the fact that it indirectly recognized that there are high-speed roads and buses in South Korea. Be that as it may, but even the North Korean nomenclature (except, most likely, its highest link) seems to have no opportunity to receive true information about the external world.

Programs of Pyongyang Radio look pretty peculiar. In his programs, music programs alternate with brief information and propaganda issues. Every hour of gear begins the release of news, on its topics as two drops of water similar to messages "Nodon Synun". After that, for a few minutes, Movie music or one or two songs about Kim Ire Seine, Kim Jong Ira or Party. The repertoire is very small, the same song is repeated several times a day. For songs usually follows short, 5-10 minutes, transfer. As a rule, this is any comment on the issues of internal political situation, the situation in South Korea, Chuchhesky philosophy. According to its content and tone, these transmissions correspond to "Nodon Synun" (often it is just an articles "Nodon Synun", Radio transmitted). After that, songs and marches are again thundered, and then the next one, too, five or ten-minute, short program. It is curious very intonation of the speakers of Pyongyang Radio, which even enough neutral texts (say, about the severity) read the tone of the Commissioner, raising the company into the bayonet attack.

I must say that most residents of Korea are forced to listen to the radio almost constantly. Radios – reproductors – there are almost every house, in addition, radio is constantly and on full volume works in all metro cars, on the factories, and sometimes – even in the fields during the suffer. Thus, a constant sound environment will be created, in which Koreans spend a significant part of the day. This medium consists of militant marches and pathetic slogans, which literally shout radio speakers. Naturally, a small set of constantly repeated propaganda formulas can rather deeply penetrate the consciousness of those who he listen to him every day for decades.

In general, for North Korean propaganda, the desire to create a certain permanent and extremely saturated ideological background of all everyday life. She strives to ensure that the main slogans always sounded in the ears of people and have always been in front of their eyes. It seems to be automatic, the perception of the most important postulates should ensure that the perception of the most important postulates. From here – not only the omnipresent radio, but also the wide use of visual agitation. On the streets of Korean cities, an innumerable set of all slogans and posters: from simple red cloth on the walls of houses to huge concrete steles with images of episodes from the life of Kim Il Sen and Kim Jong Ira, which are installed on each major crossroads.

A completely special means of propaganda steel buried on the cliffs of the inscription. Usually they contain toasts in honor of Kim Il Sen and Kim Jong Ira, but sometimes there are inscriptions for other content. This is truly "Monumental propaganda", For many of these slogans are carved by multi-meter letters on the sheer cliffs in the most picturesque places of Korea. In the mountains of Kymgansan and Mkhhansan, glorified by their amazing beauty, probably, already finding one peak, on which some inspired poetic inscription like was blocked "Long live a great leader Marshal Kim Il Saint!" or "Above the rates of the 80s!". These gigantic inscriptions, deeply knocked out in the rocks and painted bright red paint, as easy to guess, very decorated with landscapes, as if they came down from the paintings of medieval Korean or Chinese artists. All this activity is deployed to directly indicate Kim Il Sene, which somehow noticed:"And it would be nice to carve any good slogans on the memory of the subsequent generations"<= 11>.

Campaign for caring slogans on the rocks turned into full force since the 1970s. This is how it describes her one modern North Korean local historian (I apologize for the long quote, but it is worth it, for the dates are a good idea of ​​the style of modern Korean literature):

"With all my heart, perceiving the wise instructions of the Great Leader and the beloved leader, party members and workers, everything as one rose to the struggle for creating inscriptions, which will continue for ten thousand generations of descendants. From the Komsomol members and young people, a detachment of a high-speed battle was formed from the Komsomol and Youth (a high-speed combat unit – a militarized construction organization, something like Soviet buildingbat – a.L.) who helped volunteer detachments of workers. Members of the squad of a high-speed battle and helping them the locals who are inspired by a sense of fiery loyalty to the great leader, for the period up to February 1982. Created in Kymgansan 61 inscription (3690 characters). Both in the depth of its ideological content and scale, these inscriptions have no analogues anywhere in the world. So the inscription "Juche" On the rock Chonen has a height of 27 m, width – 8 m, depth of letters – 1.2 m."

Oral agitation is widely used, which seems to complement the continuous impact of radio. On the streets of cities, you can often see special minibuses with a loudspeaker and, sometimes, with a small balcony of the back, intended for a protruding agitator. Usually such agitmashins act on large construction sites. Through the loudspeakers, the music interrupted by slogans, which from time to time yells a girl sitting in the car. Builders work under this accompaniment, which is believed to have a beneficial effect on them. In general, the image of a girl with a huge megaphone under the arm has become a symbol of propaganda activities, inspiring the masses for labor feats. The image of this is very popular in modern Korean art, he pooes from a book in a book, from the film to the film, from the painting in the picture.

Others and, it is necessary to recognize, a rather specific type of oral campaign is considered the so-called "Salon Agitation" in transport. It is that the conductor during the movement loudly, on the entire salon, shouts certain slogans, to the best of their forces and abilities at the same time with the usual pathetic intonations of the speakers of Pyongyang Radio. The impression on a fresh person it produces quite dyed, but I must say that the passengers do not respond to these propaganda exercises, and the conductor themselves do this operation infrequently.

A characteristic feature of an ideological work existing in Korea is extremely wide, we can say massive, assembly. In North Korea, the statement of Kim Il Sayna is often cited that each Korean should work eight hours, to study eight hours, to rest eight hours (I wonder what is the time that goes to work or home?). At the same time, however, it should be borne in mind that under "school" In this case, it is in mind first "Political studies", That is, a thorough study of the rivers Kim Il Sen and Kim Jong Ira. Of course, the dream that every Korean will read the sacred texts eight hours a day and remained a dream. Nevertheless, the success of the Korean authorities in this field is quite significant. Hardly there is another country in the world, every resident of which is forced to hold at mandatory meetings on average about 2 hours daily. Meetings in Korea – part of everyday everyday, they are common, like lunch or sleep. The working day in the country begins with a meeting, he also ends (overly say that the meeting time is not included in the total duration of the working day). In addition, the entire second half of the Saturday day is given to the collections.

Even vacationers are not delivered from the assembly. Being in sanatoriums and holiday homes, Koreans Sun are equally obliged to visit the meetings passing there and carry out an average of 2-3 hours a day (Saturday, as well as everywhere, is marked by particularly active and long-term politicians).

Korean political and advocacy practice has developed quite numerous forms of meetings, which are periodically held at enterprises and organizations. It is hardly that it makes sense to tell about all, especially since the story will not be complete, so we will be limited to a rather transfer of the main types of meetings, they, so to speak, genre varieties.

1. "Characters of chitka newspapers", Most Koreans begins every working day. At these meetings, for about half an hour, specially appointed responsible read "Nodon Synun" Or occasionally, "Memories of Antiappon partisan". It’s like an ideological morning charging, mandatory for all residents of the DPRK.

Official propaganda in the DPRK ideas and methods

2. "Meetings of accounting for the Great Leader and the Beloved Head", which are told stories about Kim Ire Seine and Kim Jong Ira (mainly from specially trained and actively used in the Korean propaganda collections of the series "Love stories for people"). The pages of Korean books are filled with such stories, they are mandatory studied in schools and kindergartens, and Pyongyang propaganda distributes their translations to a variety of languages ​​around the world. We are a speech of IDT about certain cases in which Kim Il Saint and Kim Zhong Il showed their humanity, wisdom, love for subjects.

3. "Collection of interpretation of slogans", As can be seen from their very name, the explanation of the content of official slogans is dedicated.

4. "Meetings of Ment", which are told stories about "Bloody Crimes of Eternal Enemies Korean People – American Imperialism, Japanese Colonialism and their South Korean Puppets".

5. "Meetings of ideological struggle", Apparently, borrowed from China. They are criticized by those who committed certain "Ideological errors" and "concessions revisionism", What are even considered wearing long hair or excessive fashion commitment. There should be accusations and revelations of the guilty, who in conclusion itself is obliged to pronounce the repentance speech. Nowadays, such meetings are relatively peaceful, but in the USSR among immigrants from North Korea I had to meet people whom in the sixties in such meetings were severely beaten.

6. "Collecting Life Summing" Complete the working week, they are usually carried out on Saturdays. All members of the team in turn must tell about their misconducts and pregressions over the past week, having completed this story with mandatory repentance. This kind of political public confession is a very important episode in the daily life of modern Korea. After all members of the team will perform with repeated speeches, which must necessarily be accompanied by quotes from Kim Il Senya and Kim Jong Ira, comes the so-called "Mutual critics", In the course of which everyone must condemn one or another act of its comrades.

7."Song learning meetings" related to the fact that the appearance of a new song in Korea is a rare event, and each next song is approved by over. Songs, like movies, in the DPRK there is little, but each of them should be "masterpiece of chuchhesky music" and therefore is subject to mandatory learning to the entire population of the country. This is understandable: After all, Kim Il Saint and Kim Zhong Il are mentioned in any of the song texts.

A peculiar feature of Korea is the system "Gifts of the Great Leader". From time to time, advanced workers, engineers, or, sometimes, the whole team of any enterprise is awarded any valuable, scarce things. They explain that this "Great leader" personally took care of them and sent them gifts. Gifts can be different, but most often it is either what you can’t buy any cards in stores: sugar, meat, fruits (even oranges), or things are very expensive and at the same time scarce: watches, televisions, players. The feelings of the Korean, who gets such a holiday, and for free, and even on behalf of Kim Il Senya. "Gifts of the Great Leader" not only individuals, but also whole organizations, educational institutions. This is usually furniture, visual benefits, equipment (especially medical) and the like. Above each such thing is strengthened a small red plate, which indicates that this – "GIFT OF THE GREAT WORTH".

Propaganda tasks are completely subordinated not only by the activity of the media, not only literature and art, but even a museum business. All Korean museums can be divided into two categories: museums in the exact sense of the word and the so-called "Museums merit" – "Sachzhokkvan". The first few, in Pyongyang – no more than half-life, but the second is a huge amount, they are hardly in every major city, with some enterprises and institutions. The full name of these museums – "Museum of the revolutionary merit of the Great Leader". I personally happened to visit three of them – University, Railway and Metropolitan, and also "Sachzhokvany" in Wansan and Chonsanli. In fact, these are Museums Kim Il Sen and Kim Jong Ira, but with some special (in this case – university, railway, metropolitan, local history) bias, so to speak, museums "Kim Il Saint, Kim Jong Il and Railway" or "Kim Il Saint, Kim Zhong Il and Metropolitan". For example, the Metro Museum in the first halls is told about the childhood of Kim Il Hayen, further – about his activities in Manchuria, about the Korean War and only then materials begin, somehow related to the Metropolitan. These are photos of the construction of the metro and its builders, newspapers and magazines in which ITT is about this. But the Most of the Most are the exhibits of another kind: the knob, which Kim Il Sen signed a decree on the start of construction, a chair on which Kim Il Saint was sitting during "Manuals in place" The work of the Metrostroy, the microphone, in which Kim Il Sen said several phrases about the subway and even a whole dross, on which Kim Il Saint drove along the line between the stations under construction. The walls of many halls are hung with photographs and paintings on the topic "Kim Il Saint and Metro Builders". Large diorama with all sorts of sound and lighting effects on which Koreans are big masters are dedicated to this.

By the same principle, the exposition was built in all "Museums merit". After in 1980. Kim Zhong Il was officially proclaimed in the heir of his father, in many of them appeared, in addition, and special sections dedicated to the younger kim. A special impression was made on me a hall "Kim Zhong Il at military fees" v "Museum of merit" Pyongyang University named after Kim Il Sen. There, among other things, placed: a rifle, a sapper blade and, it seems, a gas mask, which were in Kim Jong Ira at the fees, as well as a spoon-grandfather, which young Kim spilled out in the kitchen duty. The same important historical event – the duty of Kim Jong Ira in the kitchen during military fees – is devoted to and a huge picture on one of the walls of the hall. On her young Kim in a white coat on top of the shape, with a spoon in his hands talking about something with carefully and enthusiastically listening to his students. In the late 80s. At the place where Kim Jong Il spent several weeks at the fees, a memorial complex was created. Even fenced there, even pebbles, on which rested and drank water tired after cross Kim Jong Il.

However, it is impossible not to note that the grace with which these museums are decorated. Numerous cabinets, stands, panels – all this is just handmade masterpieces, the finest wood thread, inlay and even embroidery. With rare thoroughness made by layouts on which the smallest, in the share of the millimeter, details are worked out.

One of the main propaganda center of the country is "Friendship exhibition between nations", Located in the beautiful mountains Mkhhansan. This "Masterpiece of architecture – a grand building with an area of ​​23 thousand square meters, national in shape and socialist content" Introduces the exhibition of gifts Kim Il Seine, by the way, there is also a clear Soviet influence here, because the USSR has played a considerable symbolic role to the exhibition of gifts to Stalin. They write a lot about this exhibition and speak in the DPRK, it must serve as evidence that Kim Il Saint is the most popular political figure of the modern world, and its visit is a mandatory part of the stay in the Korea of ​​most foreigners.

One of the most important issues in assessing the activities of any propaganda system is its effectiveness. To what extent effective North Korean propaganda? As far as North Korean propaganda authorities, it will be possible to convince the population of the country in the correctness of their postulates and whether these beliefs are strong? It is clear that it is impossible to answer this question with confidence, because any field sociological studies in the DPRK cannot be speech. Nevertheless, the author on the basis of his observations and conversations considers it possible to make some conclusions on this score and share them with readers.

First, it seems that in general, North Korean propaganda is quite effective, first of all – due to the lack of competing with official sources of information. The main mass of residents of the DPRK believes that the standard of living in their country is quite high, with great respect refers to Kim Il Sen (but not to his son, much less popular in the people). As for nationalist convictions, they are simply organic for the overwhelming majority of Koreans both in the north and in the south.

Secondly, it seems that in the last decade, the effectiveness of North Korean propaganda activities is reduced. The reason for this is a certain weakening of the isolation of the country to which the North Korean leadership of the IDT, seeking to solve its economic problems at the skill with the external world. This leads to distribution in the DPRK, especially among elite youth and students of a certain skepticism in relation to official settings.

Thirdly, the successes achieved by the North Korean propaganda services in the formation of the world they need largely are the result of a rigid administrative and police control over the population and complete information isolation from the outside world, and not the right organization of propaganda work as such. From this it follows that even a weak departure from the policy of information self-insulation and the minimum expansion of contacts with the outside world will result in rapid destruction of the official worldview (although some of its elements may exist for a very long time). In other words, the positions of the official worldview in Korean society are not particularly durable.

1. These groups consist of several dozen families living in the neighborhood. At the head of each group there is an official who is obliged to control the behavior of all people who are in his subordination, whose political reliability is also personally responsible.

2. However. Ko n Khvan (famous North Korean diplomat, subsequently swallowed south) recalls, as in August 1967., During the next campaign to combat alien influences, all students of the Pyongyang Revolutionary School of Foreign Languages, where he then studied, forced all the foreign books had all them, including dictionaries, and then held a solemn burning of this "Bourgeois and revisionist" Literature. Cm.: Ko n hwan. Pxhanyan 25 Sigan (25 o’clock Pyongyang). Seoul, Korvon, 1992. with.293-294.

3. However, in 1998., that is, 4 years after the death of his father, he also became referred to "Great leader" that is, to use the title, which could only be applied to Kim Il Seine.

4. Choso: N P’OJA Sikmul. Pyongyang: Kwahak Paekkwa Sajo: N Ch’ulp’ansa, 1990. P.1. KIM PAEK-RYO: N. Choso: No: Mou: M Ch’yegye Munje. — "O: N’O: Hak Ronmun Chip". Pyongyang: Kwahak Paekkwa Sajo: N Ch’ulp’ansa, 1987. P.1.

5. Kon Thak Ho. Kukka CHONCHHI WIG N’TMAK (behind the scenes of the political protection of the state). Seoul, 1976.

6. Komgansan-wing RKSA-Va Munzha (history and culture of Kymgansana). Pyongyang, 1984, with.47.

7. This monument is complicated from 25550 stones, which symbolizes the number of days lived by Kim I Sray to the time of the discovery of this structure. (Cm.: Korea.Brief information. Pyongyang, 1987, with.216.)

eight. Pukkhan Chonychi (North Korean Policy). Seoul, Iri Munwe Ca, 1990, with.288.

nine. Pukna Shenhvalsan (Lifestyle of the North and South). Seoul, 1986, with.83. The task of apples should pay attention to how the traditional Confucian hierarchy appeared in it (the eldest – above the youngest, man – above the woman).

ten. Li Don Chun. Cuchekhn-consangui-bhkhkhok Surngwan (Chuchhesky, Communist doctrine of the revolutionary leader) // Kynlokja, 1987, NO.eight.

eleven. Kim Ile Sleep Chickeck Chip (Coll. op. Kim Il Sena), t.3, C.448.

12. Komgansan-wing RKSA-Va Munzha (history and culture of Kymgansana). Pyongyang, 1984. WITH.118.

Official propaganda in the DPRK ideas and methods

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