Old Vichuga ()
Old Vichuga (until 1938. — Vichuga) — The village in the Vichugsky district of the Ivanovo region, the oldest settlement in the vicinity. Located on the picturesque bank of the Vichuzhanka River 60 km from the regional center. Nearest cities — Vichuga (8 km), Rodniki (20 km) and Kineshma (27 km). Population — 4647 people (2020).
Vichugi edge once was the textile capital of the Russian Empire. 10% of domestic textiles were produced here, although the entire population of Vichugi and the surrounding villages nearly accounted for a tenth share of the country’s total population.
It was originated here on the whole of Russia of the manufacturer’s dynasty, often immigrants from fortress peasants. And they developed not only production, introducing advanced technologies, but also built schools, hospitals, nursery, laid parks and built housing for workers. Many architectural monuments of that epoch have been preserved to this day.
Climate Old Vichuga
The climate in the old Vichug is moderately continental with warm and rainy summer, cold and snowy winter and pronounced intersazon. Winds predominantly southwestern and northwestern. The average annual amount of precipitation — About 400 mm.
The coldest month — January with an average temperature -9°WITH. The warmer month — July with an average daily temperature +24,4°C, maximum amount of rainy days — In June (16). Recommended time to visit Old Vichugi — from May to September, when a comfortable average daily temperature.
History of old Vichuga
Old Vichuga — One of the oldest settlements of the Ivanovo region. In antiquity, the Finno-Ugric tribe of the Merey lived here, in memory of which the name remained “Vichuga”, that translated means “swale”. Since the X century, these lands are part of the Kiev Rus.
The first chronicle mention of Vichugi refers to 1482, when Ivan III complained wickup and a few more neighboring settlements by Prince Fyodor Belsky on the occasion of his marriage with the sovereign’s nephew. Belsky owned these lands about half a century, afterwards, already with Ivan Grozny, they again became state.
In those times of Vichuga — It is a fairly large settlement, the parish center of the huge territory. At the beginning of the XVII century, residents of the region actively opposed Polish-Lithuanian interventory. A squad, collected from the locals, later joined the militia of Minin and Pozharsky and participated in the liberation of Moscow.
Under Mikhail Romanov, stateless land of huge sizes were fragmented by small possessions and complained to a large number of princes and nobles. The owners of the village of Vichuga were the landowners Vasily Shusherin and Guriy Yergolsky.
Since local lands did not differ in fertility, they replaced the barbecine by the lifting, both in kind and in monetary terms, which contributed to the development among peasants of various crafts, of which spinning, weaving and dyeing tissue were especially popular.
In addition, Vichuga had a profitable geographical position: on the path of the path connecting Moscow with the Volga. In the village there was a customs courtyard, which collected a duty from the merchants passing through the village. Later, the customs court was postponed to Volga Kineshma.
His heyday reached at the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries, when it belonged to the Count of Tatishcheva. At this time, beautiful and finishing manufactories appear here. Their products are in constant demand and boyko diverges at the surrounding fairs.
Since 1812 the demand for products increases dramatically Vichugsky enterprises. After the fire in Moscow, textile manufacturing center moved to the Vladimir and Kostroma provinces, while the second part was Vichuga. At that time, in the nearby villages are actively opening up new production factory owners Konovalov Razoronovymi, Mindovskie and other.
At the end of the XIX century, 6 km from the village railway construction, and the nearest station is named Vichuga. Now textile products are sent all over the country and by rail, and the turnover of the local factories is about 10 million rubles.
However, in 1881 due to water shortages and the lack of convenient access routes factory begin to close and new ones appear already in other settlements on the banks of the Volga. The volume of production in Vichuga falls at the same time receive a new impetus to the development of settlements located around the railway station.
In 1925, the workers of the towns and villages near the stanitsa was established new city of Vichuga, and in 1938 it was renamed in Vichuga. At the same time the village Vichuga gets a new name — Vichuga old and new status — settlement.
What to see
In the center of the city is very interesting monument — Lenin and the Red Army. It is remarkable that the leader was captured was not alone, as usual, but with a revolutionary class representative. Such monuments across the country can be counted on the fingers of one hand.
At the intersection of the Club and the Co-operative street, which is one of the main attractions of the Old Vichuga — Finca With. NS. Tatishcheva. It was built at the turn of the XVIII and XIX centuries, by Italian architect Gaudenzio Marichelli.
This beautiful two-story brick building with a four-column portico for two centuries was rebuilt several times, today it houses the club, but the building requires major restoration.
Near the homestead was once a landscape English park with linden alleys and glass greenhouses where they grow rare and exotic plants. From him, unfortunately, little remained, but so far has been preserved Round pond With a bulk island, digged by the fortress peasants with. NS. Tatishchev in 1821.
Another remarkable monument of old Vichugi — Temple Sergius Radonezhsky. This cemetery church was built in 1828 in the style of Russian classicism on the site of an old wooden temple. Since then, it has not been closed, thanks to which the pristine inner decoration has retained.
Just eight kilometers from the old Vichuga there is a modern town of Vichuga, where you can also see a lot of interesting things. Here, on the site of the former village Bonyachki preserved buildings Factory Konovalov — One of the largest Ivanovo textile production. The two-story factory building stands on the shore of Konovalovsky Pond, and its powerful five-column portico is reflected in its waters.
Built at the beginning of the 20th century, in the 1930s the building became the cradle of Stakhanovsky (or rather, Vinogradovsky — According to the name of the founders of Mary and Evdokia Vinogradovy) Movement in textile production. Today in the building is located “Vichuga Manufactory”.
A few steps from the factory on the square stands the yellow building with columns — this is Konovalovsky nursery. They were built at the beginning of the 20th century to supervise the testicles, who worked in the factory. For a long time they were considered the best in Russia for children for children workers.
Next door is a generic House of manufacturers Konovalov. It was built in the middle of the XIX century and later passed under the Public Servants of the partnership meeting and manufactories. Konovalova with her son. In 1917, the first district council of workers and soldiers’ deputies was located, the building is currently owned by the bailiff.
On the contrary, you can see one of the most beautiful Vichuga buildings — Konovalovsky Palace (folk house). The building built in the style of neoclassicism began to erect before the revolution, and finished already in the mid-20s of the 20th century, adding the decor with Soviet symbolism.
Today is the Palace of Culture with the Library and Circles for Children, and concerts of world-class stars are held in the large visual hall with beautiful acoustics.
Next to the palace is City Park, which was also laid by the manufacturer a. NS. Konovalov in 1850. Lime, birch and pine allys are preserved here, planted over a hundred years ago, Siberian cedars are planted in the park.
At the beginning of the 20th century there was a dance floor, tennis courts and even a kegel. In the Soviet period, the park was decorated with sculptures.
Nearby on Parkova Street you can see the former Building of a factory school, Built in 1896 and is currently recognized as a monument of regional architecture. A bit further — Resurrection Temple (White), Built in 1904 by order of manufacturer and. A. Konovalova, Son A. N. Konovalova, notable on white marble iconostasis.
Immediately at the park on Nonna Street, Kulikova is located Vichuga Art Museum, occupying ancient mansion for senior employees, also built by Konovalov manufacturers.
Here are objects of art and life of the XIX-XX centuries: painting, sculpture, graphics and clothing items. Next door, in the former house of the chief engineer, is Local Lore Museum.
A little further accommodated another gift to the city from the family of manufacturers — Konovalovskaya Hospital. In shape it resembles the letter E — In memory of the mother a. AND. Konovalova, Catherine. The building is very elegant, with stucco, columns and lions above the gate, inside the marble. Currently, the Central District Hospital is located here.
In the neighboring bones of the village of Tesin, the production of another Fabricant dynasty was located — Razisy, now it is also part of the Vichugi. Preserved here House Razisov Buildings of the XIX century, today it houses a military office. Also ruined had a summer cottage in Marfino, not far from Old Vichuga, but now the manor house is in the ruined state.
Another attraction in Tezino — Resurrection Temple (Red), Built by order of Ivan Kokorev, son-in-law of one of the ruined, in memory of Lydia’s daughter tragically deceased.
This is one of the biggest churches in Central Russia, built of red brick, symbolizing the fire, and the 90-meter bell tower symbolizes the candle. The temple is consecrated in 1911, it is also noteworthy with a unique Maolikov Panno adorning the facade.
Another dynasty of Vichuga manufacturers — Peloivina — had factory in the village chapher (Now the village is red October). This is a red brick building with large windows, as well as boiler. Earlier in the factory there was even an equestrian yard. In Soviet times the building was rebuilt, but retained the original features.
Opposite the factory building Manor Peloivina. It is a rather modest building from red brick, decorated with an unusual two-story veranda with wooden columns. The estate was previously surrounded by the park, unfortunately, lost, and the local house of culture is currently located in the building.
How to get
From Moscow to the new Vichugi can be reached by car. Distance — 373 km, travel time — about 5 hours. It follows the federal highway M7 through Vladimir and Suzdal to Ivanovo, then on the road of regional importance to Spring and Vichugu.
Also from Moscow to Old Vichugi can be reached by flight bus. From M. Shchelkovskaya send buses to Vichuga, Kineshma and Yuryevts. You need to go to Vichugi, travel time — more than six hours. From the Vichugi to the old Vichugi there are buses with an interval of approximately half an hour. Travel time — 15 minutes.
Old Vichuga can also be reached by train. From Moscow to Kineshma once a day, a train walks, which makes the stop in Vichuga. From Vichugi to Old Vichugi — 15 minutes by bus. Also by train to Vichugi can be reached in Ivanovo.