Once in Mexico

In the tiny southern Mexican state of Chiapas is concentrated a third of the Mexican oil and gas reserves, as well as many deposits of other minerals. Since then, in fact, started the conflict between Indians and the Mexican government, concluded economic agreements with major multinationals.

Plan Mexico’s economic transformation is called "Plan Puebla Panama". This is a project to create a single economic space in Mexico, USA and Canada. According to this project, Mexico is actually divided into three parts. North will be an industrial region, the center – a large trading area. South and south-east, where it is located Chiapas, Mexico has become the largest sector of natural resources. The authorities, aware of in which the crisis is the local economy, it is considered the only way out.

Meanwhile, to the mid-90s, Mexico has been the most active in the industrialized countries of Latin America. In the course of industrial development of the Indians forced out into the woods, into the Mexican jungle, where he lived the usual agricultural life, but in the wild poverty. A plan to create a single economic space was supposed to come into force on January 1, 1994. And the leaders of the indigenous communities felt that this way they will be completely destroyed. Indians many times reminded the federal government that the constitution of the country they are supposed autonomy. Said many times that the federal center is not engaged in the improvement of life of the Indians.

The government called their initiative to the "Nation of Maya" plan, the country’s split plan for the Mexican and Indian part, and the requests for autonomy and remained unanswered.

In recent weeks, 1993, the Indians warned the federal authority that if their requirements were not fulfilled, they would capture Chiapas. Nobody believed them.

In the first hours of the contract, in the first hours of the new year, when the whole country celebrated, several hundred Indians with old carbines took the capital of Chiapas, seized the telegraph and declared the world that the Indian territories were captured by the Sapathist Army of National Liberation (Sano) acting on behalf of Indian communities of the country and under their command. The leader of the rebel was the subcomandant of Marcos.

It is known about him that this is a young man with a brilliant university education. He and his comrades after studying went "to the people" and several years have lived in rules with Indians. Marcos is not his name, but the name of his deceased in the rule. He always walks in a black mask, and no one has ever seen his faces. They say he is not even an Indian, but half-blood. Nothing more about him is known.


On January 1, 1994, the Army of Mexico attacked the largest city cities and led the fighting 17 days. But it was not possible to defeat the Sano in a short time, besides, the Indians across the country went to the streets and arranged unrest. In support of the Indians, the largest public organizations of the world.

And the government was forced to announce the cessation of hostilities. With the rebels decided to negotiate.

Over the past, the Sapatists have achieved the fact that hundreds of schools for the Indians appeared on the territories controlled by them, alcohol was forbidden. Crime fell on the captured territories. Under the pressure of the rebels, the authorities began to prepare a law on the legal recognition of the rights of the Indians. True, until this law is accepted. Sapatovers do not capture hostages and do not even lead the fighting where the civilian population lives. It does not give the US Department of Formal Reasons to include Sano in the list of international terrorist organizations. With all the opportunities in the form of assistance to the Mexican authorities in the fight against the rebels.

Authorities, besides attempts to negotiate with the Indians, do not leave hope to defeat their power methods. Some time ago, a scandal broke out in Mexico when it became known that in this fight Mexico illegally helping Spanish secret services.

According to the Sapatists themselves, this information was transferred to them by a former government mexican official, sympathetic to the Indians. It turns out that in 1995 a senior employee of the Spanish government flew in Mexico. During a meeting with the then prime minister of the country, Sapatistov was affected by Sapatistov. Spaniard suggested that Mexico help.

In Spain, according to him, there were long-term controlled by the detachments of the detachments, which are engaged in the killings of terrorists and the provocation of collisions with basks. And although the country is already aware of the existence of these groups and even the investigation into the involvement of the government to death of several prominent politicians from the Rows of Basque separatists, these investigations have not yet led to. Hispanic Mexican security services offered to help organize such groups in Mexico. In exchange, asked the extradition of members of this and Basque politicians who fled from Spain for the ocean.

This information received by Indians was exhausted. But the Mexican and Spanish journalists who received these data from the Indians, immediately remembered that during the six-year-old Board of Seedillas on charges of belonging to this from Mexico to Spain, many Basque deported. And international amnesty has evidence that they were subjected to torture. For example, José Koldo Martin Kamon and Lourdes Chourruk Koldo, famous Basque separatists deported in 1995 from Mexico and convicted in Spain for 122 years in prison. Reporters also, for example, from the publications "Sociedad and Poder" and "La Honadia" wrote about the fact that in 2001 the Spanish finances have been brought to Mexico for investment in certain Mexican radio company and that the investment – no more than a legal cover investments of Spanish intelligence agencies in organizing militant groups in Mexico.

The war with the Indians is 10 years. The talks then stops, then resumes. But the EZLN still owns the state of Chiapas and demands autonomy for Indians. Development of natural resources in this region so that it can be said, and has not begun, "Plan Puebla-Panama" is not implemented.


Surprisingly, after Marcos decade it has not only become the undisputed leader of the Indians, but also an idol of the anti-globalization all over the world. Around his name became the focus groups, which for many years could not agree with each other. In 2001, when a truce with the government is strong enough, the Zapatistas organized a peace march, have been captured by his staff to the capital of Mexico across the country. And if from Chiapas came a few dozen Indians, they were already hundreds of thousands in Mexico City. Then to participate in the march to Mexico anti-globalists have arrived from around the world. Next to each other were people who, until recently, did not act in concert, such as Georges Beauvais, a Frenchman, Pillager "McDonald’s", and the Italian radical environmentalists from the group "White Monkey". For Marcos prepares to join many famous personalities. This is the widow of former President of France, Danielle Mitterrand, and writers Gabriel García Márquez and José Saramago, and American film director Oliver Stone, Hollywood stars Tim Robbins and Susan Sarandon.

Once in Mexico

Marcos from the very beginning was a great ideologist. Simultaneously with the real uprising he led his Indians in the virtual world. As soon as the rebels took Chiapas, across the world have been registered online sites Zapatistas. Talented writer and essayist, he wrote about his revolution so Vitievato, mixing Marxism and Indian legends, quoting Shakespeare, then Lewis Carroll, who won the sympathy of intellectuals of the whole world – in different countries in different languages ​​his books. From the depths of Mexican Selva in the early days of the revolution began to work radio stations. More recently, "rebel radio. Sano’s voice "passed on short waves, and now the Indians broadcast in different languages ​​for the whole world – this is, of course, the fruits sitting by a graduate of the University by Marcos and his comrades, each of whom knew several languages.

At the same time, the subcomandant of Marcos continues to captivate its fans of mystery, asceticism and intransigence. He never shows his face. Translator of his texts into Russian Oleg Yasinsky, for a long time living in Chile and regularly visiting Mexico, told me that Marcos believes: foreigners should leave them alone, and whatever the fate of the Indians, are their fate. That this war is not for the victory, but against oblivion.

What will end this war of the Indians with oblivion and with the story itself, incomprehensible. But in any case, Subkomantandan, Marcos proved: Harvard Intellectual Fukuyam was wrong when he spoke about the final celebration of world neoliberal ideas and transnational corporations. For more than ten years, these corporations can not do anything with a small army of semi-army Indians.

Chiapas staff

The population is 3.5 million people. 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. More than 40% of the population younger than 15 years. Half of the population is not provided with drinking water. Of the 100 children 72 do not finish the initial school education. 54% of the population suffers from exhaustion, and among the Indians (components of approximately 1 million people) are starving about 80%. Here the highest mortality in the country (more than 15.000 per year, in the overwhelming majority of cases, children, as a rule, from curable diseases – inflammation of lungs, dysentery, typhoid, malaria).

Chiapas Indians are about 10 nations, of which the main – Cultali, Tsocil, Choli, Juice and Ticholabali. All of them are descendants of the Mayan culture that existed in these places before the coming of Europeans and the only one of the three American civilizations, which disappeared not because of the Spanish Conquists, but as a result of some historical mystery. Of the three pre-aging civilizations, the Mayan culture was the most developed and only non-empire and not practicing slavery.

Subcombandant Marcos "History of the Night and Stars"

. Many nights back everything was at night. The long roof of the shadow was the sky, and sad was the song of men and women. Hearing this sad song of men and women, the gods felt pity for them. And they removed the whole roof of the night, and came the whole world, which was a lot, because the night was long and covered everything from the river to the mountains, and there was a lot of light that restrained the long roof of the night. Men and women are blinded, because too much was this light and there was no rest and the body worked constantly, because the day was infinite. And the gods understood their mistake, because they were the gods, and not fools and knew how to see their mistakes. The gods gathered again and decided to re-install the long roof of the night, for a while, until they continue to think and seek the best solution. Then, when the gods were finally able to negotiate, they went down to men and women and called volunteers to help them solve the problem. And said the gods that volunteers will become particles of the light that the roof of the night will be swept up so that the night is not so long. "They will become stars," said gods.

And all men and women said they volunteers. Because everyone wanted to be stars, and each of them became the stars, and I spent the whole roof of the night, and again everything poured solid light. The gods did not notice this because they were already sleeping, very satisfied with the fact that we decided the problem. And then men and women did as gods, they gathered together to agree, and saw that it was impossible to be stars. In order to alone shine, others should go out.

And then real men and women, those whose hearts of the earth, because Mais is born from the ground, they said they went out. And went out, and so night became good, because there was darkness in her and there was light. Because the remaining stars were able to shine thanks to others who went out, because otherwise we would still be blind. And the gods woke up and saw that the world was beautiful, which they came up with, and they left, believing that they, gods, decided this problem. Poor fellow, they never learned how the stars and night were actually born.

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