One day in the Middle Ages
You get up, but do not clean your teeth, because you have never seen a toothbrush. Closer to noon eat bean chowder. If you are a woman – shape the forehead and completely pluck your eyebrows. If you get sick, go to the doctor who will decease you to mercury or make the tight trepanation (he knows more). If you are lucky – survive and even eat a second time (do not count for breakfast, only lunch and light dinner).
We exaggerate. Of course, the day in the Middle Ages could look quite differently (again, looking at whom). But the highlights of the trace can still be.
At the beginning of the II millennium, neither in castles, nor so much in simple houses there were no kitchens, so they prepared right in the open sky in the clay pots on the focus. Separate room – Actually, the kitchen – appeared only in the Late Middle Ages. Before that, where they slept, they also prepared, and took food.
The basis of the nutrition of the peasants was cereal and legumes, so in the case of a cramming, they were doomed to hunger (and crumbs in those days were quite frequent). On the bottom of the bowls put pieces of black bread (the white was intended for nobility) to the chowder was more dense and satisfying. Summer in general – almost the only dish on the table of peasants. Only her color changed. At the end of autumn and in the winter – dark brown (colors of pea and beans), with the onset of spring, it became light (onions were added there, first nettle and sometimes a little milk), in the summer it was green (cooked from vegetables).
The right side of the meat carcass was valued higher than the left, and the front – higher than the rear. What part of the guest at the table, determined his social status
Fish – Extremely rare on the tables of peasants. She was very expensive because it was caught mainly from ponds and lakes, which were bought by rich. Easy people to fish there was not allowed. The meat was also almost a museum exhibit on the tables of the poor, although it was worth much cheaper of the fish. Not to mention the fact that it could not always be, the sacred post could take up to a third of the year. To stock its future was also not easy – the refrigerators were not, and the winter in Europe was warm. Easy salty meat lost its taste, and spices, with the help of which it was possible to preserve it, cost the fabulous money and were a kind of currency (they were supplied from distant Eastern and southern countries, and the way to the consumer occupied in general about two years). In medieval France, for example, 454 g (1 pound) of nutmeg could be exchanged for one cow or four sheep. The spices could be paid fine or pay for purchases.
The medieval library until the XVIII century was just a reading room filled with racks. The numerous long chains came down from the shelves, to which each book was chained
The peasants ate only twice a day – in the morning (women, old men, workers and patients) or closer to noon (men) and in the evening. Such norms installed the church, it is unknown why he considered breakfast and snacks during the day with something sinful or indecent. Dinelied early – hours at five in the evening, because it went down early and got up.
Books on chains
The peasants, the overwhelming part of the population of medieval Europe, were uneducated, and they had no time to read: they worked a lot to feed the family and give the tribute to Lord, who let them down on their lands, and also pay taxes. 50-60 days a year they were obliged to work for the owner. Reading for a long time remained the deadline of the clergy and isn’t it out of the education system.
It did not cancel the existence of libraries. True, foliants then practically did not exceed them, so the medieval library until the XVIII century was just a reading room filled with racks. The numerous long chains came down from the shelves, to which each book was chained. The goal is simple – so as not to be taken.
The practice of "attachment" of books existed until the end of the 1880s, until the books were made by massively and their cost did not decrease
Books in those times were piety and therefore very expensive. They were written by hand, and gold and silver were used in the design of capital letters. And there is also data – that the ear sulfur was used, from which the pigment was removed and used for illustrations.
Marilyn Monroe Middle Ages
This is definitely "Mona Lisa" – pale, with S-shaped silhouette, thin and flexible, and most importantly – with a fully eyebrow and shaved forehead (the higher forehead, the on medieval standards, more beautiful). For this fashion, evil tongues were even called the Middle Ages "century of naked farms" (there is such an African rodent, who has no wool completely, you can even look at it and similar creatures in our excellent selection of "anti-mimmi").
According to the theories of women’s fluids attributed to the cold and wet start, the task of which is only one – to seduce an innocent and lung man
In great honor in the Middle Ages, oddly enough, there were small breasts and narrow thighs. The words of medieval songs reached this day: "Percy girls their tight bandage swellets, for for the look of men, the full breasts did not mila". Considerable attention and hair – it is desirable that they are blond and curly. Gait – small chains, eyes modestly fixed in gender.
Mercury and dead
The theme of medicine in the Middle Ages, like the song of Akyn, has no end. Here you have amulets, and conspiracies, and the doctrine of the four "juices" of the body: warm, dry, wet and cold (this was associated with the use of non-drugs, but the corresponding products; for fever, for example, lettuce leaves – "cold" food) – and bloodletting, which did not do the doctors, and the garbage and girlfriends.
But there were "procedures" and more. Complete and nearby the most real treasures of the skull on the living people who complained to the "Dr." on headache or convulsions. About pain shock, which received patients during such a "treatment", a story silent, because "operations" were carried out with the help of tools like bits and hammers. The most dangerous was to damage the brain. But even more amazing that quite many patients after this procedure survived and even got rid of symptoms.
Perhaps one of the most ancient forms of medical intervention in the human body is trepanation. In fact, it is drilling holes in the skull for treating problems such as convulsions, migraines and mental disorders
True, if a person survived after trepanation – other trials could be waited for him. For example, the treatment of mercury, which was widespread in the Middle Ages (and why, mercury ointments, as you know, were very popular even in the XX century). Especially popular mercury was in the treatment of syphilis. The deterioration of the patient’s well-being only proved the medieval eskulapam – mercury acts.
Another popular drug had medicines from the fleeing powder of the mummies, which were openly traded. To buy the fortress and health of the deceased (let’s say, on the gallows), people approached and without a branch of conscience dismemberd the corpse, drank his blood and did from all this tincture and medicine. Read more about this in our material.
In the Middle Ages, the dentists were ordinary hairdressers
Despite all the tricks, they lived in those days very long (due to the lack of normal medicine). The average life expectancy of men is about 40-43 years old, women – 30-32 years (they are usually dying during childbirth).
Already married inline
Girls got married at the age of 12, a few years before that they had already hoisted them. So about special love there, probably there was no speech (although there were definitely other examples). Thanks to the church "morality", the beautiful half of humanity was considered something sinful and unclean. According to the theories of women’s fluids attributed to the cold and wet start, the task of which is only one – to seduce an innocent and lung man.
Early marriage Maria Adelaide Savoy (12 years old) and Louis, Duke of Burgundy (15 years). Wedding took place in 1697 and created a political alliance
Violence over a woman was something ordinary. Woman, in principle, perceived as goods. The description of the "examination" of the future wife came to this day: "The lady has attractive hair – the average between iscin-black and brown. Dark brown eyes deep. Nose is quite even and even despite the fact that the tip is wide and a little flat, – not rolled. Nostrils wide, mouth moderately big. Neck, shoulders, all her body and lower limbs are quite well formed. She is well folded, she has no injury. And on St. John’s Day, this girl will be nine years old.