Regions of Turkey: Xantos Valley
To the east of Fethiye, there is a historic center of Ancient Lycia and one of the largest archaeological zones of Turkey – the River Valley of Xantos (Esche, or Kodchary). Low Green Mountains, so reminiscent landscapes of Greece, keep here many archaeological sites, including two ancient cited cities Tlos and Pinar, as well as a mysterious settlement of Sidima, dozens and hundreds of grainmen, nearby shrines Leton and Pidna Fortress.
One of the most ancient cities of Lycia, TRIN is located 45 kilometers east of Fethiye, near the modern village of Asarkale (ASARKALE). The city was founded at about the XX century BC. NS., and in the Hitthe Chronicles of the XIV century BC. NS. already mentioned as "Dalava in Lucca". He was one of the six main cities in Licks, her sports and military center, and wore title "The most brilliant metropolis of the Lycian Union". Over the next century, various peoples settled here, so many ruins have already been impossible to identify – they have been rebuilt so many times in accordance with the views of new owners. The hill of the former Acropolis is now occupied by the ruins of the Ottoman Fortress – the residence of the robber and the local leader of Canla Ali-aha (XIX in.), Only in the northeast side are visible fragments of the Acropolis. Also relatively well preserved the northeastern city gates, a paved staircase to the main cemetery, located just below more ancient necropolis with the tomb of the legendary Greek hero of Bellerofont (Hippona) with its bas-relief on the Pegasus and numerous "Buried houses" IV century BC. NS. – II century N. NS., Ruins of the Stadium, Amphitheater, Arcade of the Marketroom Hall with Inner Gallery, Ruins of the Roman Gymnasium, Terms, part of which are rebuilt by Byzantines in the Basilica, within which the unit-kapa are located ("Seven doors" – Beautiful Rotunda, overlooking the valley) and magnificent theater II century BC. NS.
9 km from Tosa and 44 km from Fethiye, there is the most picturesque part of the Zantos Valley – Gorge Salakent (Saklikent). The mouth of the gorge is deceptively imperceptible – a narrow slot in a rock 150 meters from the bridge across the river. But behind it begins awesome beautiful gear walls of a canyon ending with Gokcesu and Ulupinar sources (Gokcesu, Ulupinar). It is believed that these forever raging keys are the release of all groundwater accumulated in the thicker of the Akdag, so the pressure of the purest water (the trout is even here) is impressive, and in winter, flooding is often destroyed (some of the restaurants over the cascade were destroyed by one of these floods and have never been restored ). Above sources, the abyss stretches for another 18 km up, although this site will already be interesting only to the climbers (2 km above the course of the course blocked by large boulders). Therefore, this beautiful place is used as a popular route for traveling on canyons, in which you can not only take a break from the water, but also to go through quite serious rocky areas (total time in the way about 18 hours).
Ancient Enoanda (Oenoanda, "Wine city") Lies approximately 50 km north-east of Rosa. It was one of the northernmost and most highly mountainous (1350-1450 m) cities of Lycia, still retaining many of its ancient elements due to relative inaccessibility. The history of the city has been poorly studied, it is known only that in the third century BC. NS. Here was the most southern center of Tetrapolis Lycsky, and in the second century. NS. Dioogen was born here. From the very opening of a group of British archaeologists in 1996, the city practically did not roll and now represents an extensive area of rather randomly standing ancient ruins covered with thickets of juniper, oak and cedar visited by only random hunters or shepherds.
Approximately 45 km south-east of the fette, right from the highway number 400 to the Patar, at the foot of the Mountain Akdag, clearly visible the ruins of the ancient Pinar (Pink, Pinara). According to the legends, the city was founded by the critical in the V century BC. NS., and its favorable mountain climate, the abundance of forests and a favorable position on the top of the mountain (600 meters above sea level) contributed to its rapid development – already in the III century BC. NS. He becomes one of the largest cities of Licks, Checking his own coin and having three voices in the Council of the Lycian Federation. Walked Rounded Hill Acropolis, apparently, and gave the city of his name – "Pinara" in the language of the pliers meant "Round hill". Now here, east of the main plot, is the main part of the ruins, including numerous rock graves, so characteristic for that period. On the eastern side of the Acropolis Hill is the so-called Tsarist grave, famous for its unique bas-reliefs on the walls and a high sarcophage inside.
Slightly above there is an interesting crypt with a roof in the form of a gothic arch or violin horns, just northeaster, under the canopy of a pine forest, a massive base of the temple of an unknown deity is rising. The south of the track passes between the ruins of Acropolis, Odeon, the Temple of Aphrodite with its amazing columns in the shape of a heart, then through chaos of walls, columns and graves. In the distant southern end of this small plateau, a small artificial terrace with a church located on it and the set has not yet been identified by the ruins. Above the terrace rises strange in the form and a practically intact tower, which is considered the grave, then the prison of the top citadel. From the terrace of a track runs down to the bottom of the canyon, passing past dozens of large rock graves and a source with purest water.
To the northeast of the city lies well-preserved theater, easily accessible on a specially marked track. In addition to the theater itself, the general plan of the ancient city is very clear from this point, because of his graves and residential caves, more like the head of the Swiss cheese (many caves in the beginning of our era were inhabited by Christians, although the total number of local people was never high).
The most distant from the ancient cities of Lycia, Sidim lies near a small village DODURGA (Dodurga), almost outside the valley itself. Contrary to popular belief, it is a fairly interesting plot, surrounded by a strikingly beautiful landscape. Like most of the ancient cities in the region, Sidima was opened by Europeans in the middle of the XIX century and since then practically did not roll, so the city appears in the fact in which he met our days. The mosque takes the plot of ancient term, whose columns and were used during construction. Extremely destroyed castle of the Byzantine period crowned hill in the north. His walls made a semi-crown old cemetery. Near the Plain Center lies a group of wonderful graves with antique bas-reliefs on the crops and walls. Another exciting necropolis with a huge and well-preserved heroon (temple mausoleum) lies at the foot of the low mountain range outside the field of fields. All other structures of the city will have to search for yourself – many of them barely seen from the ground and are not labeled.
The shrine of the goddess Summer (Mother Apollo and Artemis) and one of the largest cities of Likia, the SEMON was an official religious center and the board of the Council of the Lycian Federation. The city was founded in immemorial names – already in the Hellenistic period, it was considered one of the oldest in the region, although most of the structures that have reached our days belong to the Millennium. The messengers were driving here, Alexander Macedonian brought rich gifts to the temple (it was after the revelation of a local oracle, he decided to go to Persia). In the Roman period, it was one of the cult centers of the empire, and after the decline of the Federation, Christianity quickly changed the ancient beliefs. The city flourished up to the Arab raids of the VII century of our era, but then quickly fell into decline and was forgotten until 1840, and the excavations began only in 1962, but it was largely systematically and thoroughly. As a result, the SEMON (often spelled as a summer) gradually turns into one and most interesting historical centers of the region. And in 1988, the entire complex was included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List as a unique antique culture sample.
The site of the excavation (open daily: in the summer – from 8.00 to 19.thirty; In winter – from 8.30 to 17.00, entrance – 4 ytl) covers the whole territory of temples dedicated to summer, Apollo and Artemis (all – IV-I BB. to N. NS.), the nifium with a dime pool of 27 meters (it is interesting that the inscription was discovered on the walls of one of the porticors, which determines the conditions of entry into the shrine – simple clothes, the absence of rich jewelry, complex hairstyles, and so on – the first dress code in history!), partially flooded by the waters of Lake Agor (III in. to N. NS.), a large and well-preserved Hellenistic theater with sixteen memorial boards (on each – a typical theater mask of Greek style) and an interesting Roman burial nearby. Archaeological site lies 16 km south of Pinar, near the village Kumluova (Kumluova).
And 7 km south-west of the SEXTAN, almost on the seafront, is the ancient fortress Pidna (Pydnae, not to be confused with Wood in Macedonia), which is considered one of the most well-preserved Greek seaside fortresses in the region.
The ruins of the Mountain City of Xantos are famous for the breathtaking views of the panoramas, opening from here to the Escher Valley. Founded in the XII century BC. NS. The city for his long history was repeatedly destroyed and restrained from the ash again, and the courage of his defenders entered the sayings in both Persians and Romans. Unfortunately, raids of Arabs in the VII century. NS. forced the inhabitants to leave this ancient capital of Likia, and many historical relics in the 19th century were taken to the UK (the famous sculpture of the IV century is not. NS., For example, is now in the British Museum along with many other monuments and sculptures).
- Roman Theater in Xantos
However, there were a lot of ruins II century to N. NS. – III century N. NS., Certificate visits: Monumental Arch Vespasiana and the adjacent gate of the Greek period (the inscription is reading that the Great Antioch dedicated the city of Summer, Apollon and Artemis), a memorial plaque on the site of the temple of Nered, Acropolis, Tsarskiy Palace, Agora and the Roman Theater, the so-called Garpian grave , Lycian Sarcophag (III century BC. NS.) and the so-called obelisk xanthos (the ruins of the grave 480-470. to N. NS., Whose pedestal from all four sides covered the longest of famous Lycian inscriptions – 250 lines!), Mausoleum Aslan and urban wall of the Byzantine period.
Eastern parking lot, south of the so-called last agora (in the city there are several such complexes of different times), the Byzantine Basilica with beautiful mosaics, which are considered the best in Western Turkey towers. Roman Acropolis towers to the north of it, in the eastern side of which you can find a variety of separate burials and a well-preserved Earnevantine monastery with an open courtyard and thermal.
The archaeological zone lies 65 km east of Fethiye, in one of the hottest places in the region, so visit is better planned for morning or evening.