In the series of past centuries, the long-suffering land of Italy, richly polished later and blood in the works and wars, unexpectedly began to give a person with amazing fruits, who have nothing to do with the labor of the farmer. Peasant hoes and plows, making ringing, stumbled on human figures and remnants of white marble sculptures. Removing them from the Earth on the light of God, the operators of the past time involuntarily admired the vital force, harmony and the defenselessness of the creations of scratchners. Alas, durable natural material did not stand the universal head of vandalism. The new civilization was to be resurrected on the piles of fragments.
Revival or renaissance (Franz.) It is called in the history of the culture of the countries of Western and Central Europe, the transitional from medieval culture, for which asceticism is characterized with its disregard for the whole earth and physical, to the culture of the new time. The victorious path of art of Italy begins with the XIII century.. At this time, in the literature of Dante, the giant synthesis of his !Divine Comedy" Creates a swan song of medieval poetry, at the same time prophesy about the occurrence of a new era. At the same time, in the sculpture, the father and son of Pisano and especially in the painting of Jotto, using the entire experience of the previous art development, create the basis of the art of the new. Dante, Pisano, Jotto – Poet, sculptor and painter – almost one-air, and creativity them wears alone and the same features of healthy realism, bright temperament, severe will. With the beginning of the great turn of art to a person, from which the reference of the Renaissance is conducted, European humanity dropped his old rags and entertained in bright shiny clothes.
Humanism (from Lat. Humanus – Human) closer and transferred to a person (concrete, earthly) properties and power of the universe. Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) (?) was the first great humanist, a poet and a citizen who managed to overlook the wholeness of the forebreaks of thought and combine them in the poetic synthesis, which became the program of the upcoming European generations. (Veselovsky A. N. Petraka in poetic confession "Canronice" 1304-1904 St. Petersburg. 1912). Petrarch phenomenon is enormous. It is not covered by even the highest recognition of his own literary merit. Personality, poet, thinker, scientist, public figure in it are inseparable. For six hundred and years, humanity honors the great Italian, primarily for the fact that he contributed to the onset of the new era of the opening of peace and man.
Petrarca – the height of the new modern poetry. His "Book of songs" Almost entirely for a long time determined the ways of development of the European lyrics, becoming a kind of indisputable sample. Without Petrarki, Lyrics of France, Kamoens in Portugal, Shakespeare and Elizabetinians of England, Kohanovsky in Poland. To the earthly joys Petraka refer primarily to the environment. He, like none of the contemporaries, knew how to see and watch her, knew how to enjoy herbs, mountains, water, moon and sun, weather. From here and so frequent and so lovingly written in his poetry landscapes. "Natura" – One of the basic concepts in the work of Petrarki. It is multifaceted. The most characteristic state-characteristic statement is the nature of mother, parental. It is created and endowed with various essential qualities and the degree of their manifestations of stones, plants, insects, birds, animals, people. Nature causes unity, order, beauty, feasibility, benefit, the ultimate goodness of the world and its parts. Nature is endowed by a number of testicular characteristics, such as personification, wisdom, creativity, power. At the same time, nature, considers a humanist, gives a person not only with two hands, force, carnal beauty and t. NS., but also moral abilities, eloquence, mind and even virtue. To the undoubted earthly joy attracted Petrak and faith in the beauty of man and the power of his mind. He attracted any creative manifestation: whether in music, poetry, philosophy, in painting and t. D. The vocation of the art of Petrock saw in the image of bold and true actions, noble aspirations of living people. At the time of the Middle Ages, and in the Epoch of Antiquity, the beauty of nature was seen to the adoration, the beauty of nature was seen only that in the imagination inhabited forests and water with demigods, fauna, satiries, nymphs, sirens, this is how an animation soulless reality. For Petrarki, nature possessed soul and without pagan and Christian mandes and gods, because contemplation was excited in it sublime feelings.
But there was another soul soul relative to Petrarca, a distinguished beauty of nature, which did not see the Middle Ages. That was the soul of Ambrokho Lorenzetti. This man guessed that nature is beautiful. Before him, landscapes wrote only as a background to sacred stories depicting the incredible wonders of the Saintowest. Ambrogo and his elder brother Pietro were students of the famous Siena painter Simone Martini, along with which in Siena painting after Duccho, they are the most significant creative individuals. The first well-known work of Ambrogo Lorentzetti was created in 1319 g. For the Church of Sant Angelo in Vico L’Eabat near Florence. it "Madonna from Vico L’Abat". Here for the first time, the caller is surprisingly new, bright personality, which immediately becomes noticeable after "Maest" Duccho and Simone Martini; even after "Madonna Otyissanti" Florentine Jotto. About Jotto J. Vasari (chronicler who rated the greatness of the Renaissance era, creating a unique historical and artistic book "The lives of famous painters, scratchners and the Archors of the Renaissance") wrote like this: "Jotto opened the truth gates for those who brought art to the great perfection". In his book, Vazari shows that the first manifestations of non-enessant culture go back to the end of the XIII – the beginning of the XIV century (calling this period of PRASTENESANCE – "childhood" Art liberated from medieval traditions). The greatest master of this time Florentica Jotto – "Dante Italian painting" (as the vazari calls him) was one of the privileges of the Renaissance.
Creators of the XIII – early XIV century lay the foundation of a new ideology; flourishing and widespread it occurs later, with XV in. Since the end-winning citizens who finally defended the power of Kozoo Medici in Florence and began to be with all the energy characteristic of them for reorganization and decoration of the world around them. Over Italy Sun Renaissance. I was not then Italy a single country. It consisted of small dukes and republics who were hostile. The owner of each state sought to glorify himself and eagerly took artists, musicians, singers, poets, artists. Florence, who was under the rule of the dynasty of wastricter and bankers – Medici, then became the most advanced Italian Republic in the field of art, philosophy and natural sciences. The star of the family of Medici shone and began to rise higher during the economic rise of Florence in the XIV century.
Now in the XV century, the flowering of the economy of Florence remained in the past, but it is now a lush heyday reached her art. She worried Renaissance, – according to F.Engels, "The biggest progressive coup from everyone who knew humanity". Renaissance revived interest in man, justified his flesh, considered in the Middle Ages "Capacious sin". Increased interest in antique philosophy, in particular, Plato’s idealism. On the eve of this brilliant pore, the largest masters of new reborn principles are; Widely used in the XV century – painters Mazaccho ("Exile from paradise"), Grinding ("Worship of Magi), Botticelli (Venus Birth"). The greatest architect all time architect Bruneland, who resurrected the art of ancient Romans and even created and something more. Birth of a new architectural style.
Two Florentine Jeweler, Bruneland and his young friend Donatello went to Rome – source of beauty and perfection. Bruneland wanted to become architect, Donatello, and both were not satisfied with what could learn at home. In Florence from the time of the ancient world, nothing left, except for formless ruins and fragments of sculptures. The ancient monuments of Rome also for the most part lay in ruins, but several buildings were built, which in their crippledness were revered: the Colosseum, Pantheon, the triumphal arches of Tita and Constantine, erected in ancient Rome. From among the statues of emperors and pagan gods, there was only one – the equestrian statue of the emperor Mark Aurelia. The rest after the topics of Christianity were discarded from the pedestals, some broken, they were listed and entered the grass. Both Florentine with delight looked at everything that remained from Roman art. Bruneland spent all weeks in Pantheon. Donatello studied the horse statue. Having embraced their thirst to see as much as possible monuments of ancient art, made it makes it starting to dig out of the ground of the fact that it was once solid. The main treasure, rebel from the buried ruins, has become a new thinking and new art. Donatello and Brunelands did not copy the creations of Roman authors, sculptors, architects, they ignited their creative fantasy. Donatello wanted to be a follower of Romans in a reliable image of nature. What Dante, Petrarca, Jotto, Lorenzetti, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael: New Man, Renaissance, was finally born in Florence. In the creations of Donatello and Bruneland. That was, according to Georgeo Vazari, the second period – "youth" Arts when the realism of the image can be achieved by learning anatomy and prospects, and artists achieve perfection – strict observance of measures in proportions.
Artistic picture of the picture prevailing in the period "Summer" Renaissance, already since the beginning of the XVI century, it begins to change, enriched, improve, but the basic principles of it do not lose their meaning up to the present day. The third period (the end of the XV and the middle of the XVI century is high revival) – the golden age, the time of maturity and complete mastering of the image of nature and technical perfection, surpassed even antique images. During this period, Renaissance was the magnificent fruits of the economic rise, which occurred in the XIII-XIV centuries. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Great Florentine Artists, Real Titans – Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonotti, Rafael Santi from Urbino, were ascended on his wave. They raised art school on an inaccessible height. The oldest of these three greatest figures of Florentine art was Leonardo da Vinci. About him, one of the end of the art of the Renaissance, can be said the same thing that Vazari speaks of one of the prosecutors of this art – Jotto, also (like Leonardo) grew up in a rustic atmosphere: "He spent whole days on the natural tendency to painting, drawing on the plates, on the sand, on earth something from nature or what he occurred to". In his youth, Leonardo came to the workshop Verrocko, where the tradition of Brunelands was preserved, the art of which had a special impact on the formation of the creative appearance of the young Leonardo. At the time of his appearance in the workshop, Verrikovo worked on the statue "David" (the second, the first made the Great Donatello). A 14-year-old boy took part in this work. And all orders for the workshop Verrocko were not held without the participation of Leonardo, which certainly played a big role in the formation of the artist’s creative individuality – the most content, their subjects, as it were, the future paths of his life and activity.
Three decades from the birth of Leonardo, a man who was destined to become the greatest follower of the brilliant creators of the whole era of the Renaissance.
Rafael, the youngest of the three titans, did not know the flour of creativity inherent in his predecessor, which attaches special attractiveness to the creations of his ingenious brush. The artistic ideals of Renaissance, he embodied in his numerous works with the most possible. He taught him a lot, Leonardo, but Rafael did not become his blind follower. His beloved theme was Madonna, a loyal maternal love of which, gentle femininity, he knew how to portray with an unsurpassed charm. Like Botticelli, Raphael gave the way out so rare in the Italian Renaissance sensitivity in his paintings. The best of Rafael, belonging to the theme of Madonna – is "Madonna on a green meadow". The face of a young mother-in-law embodies that ideal of female beauty that Rafael was looking for all his life and could not, according to his own admission, find in one real woman. Creating this picture, Rafael certainly recalled "Madonna in a grotto" Leonardo.
Michelangelo is the exact opposite of Leonardo and in its political convictions and in its artistic tastes. He found the creation of Leonardo sentimental, medieval. From the first moment of dating, the two greatest masters felt their hostility to each other, mixed with respect and envy. One of the tops of all Renaissian art – the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, but his genuine element was sculpting. His sculptures and architectural creations are strict, can be said, harshs, like his spiritual world. In his feelings, he had no lack, but it was a feeling of bitterness, despair, readiness for everything, and often even hate. The one who does not fall as light the love of others cannot reflect it. Michelangelo’s mental world was overshadowed not only by the loneliness of his personal life, but also flewing the tragedy in his eyes. He had to be drawn up to the end, to what Leonardo and Raphael did not live: see how Florence from the Free Republic turned into the Duchy of Medici.
The beauty to which the suffering and misfortunes are not admitted, Michelangelo found in architecture. A decent successor of Bruneland, he created the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, and to this day unsurpassed in size. Nibble.
Leonardo, Rafael, Michelangelo Life and the activities of these ingenious masters becomes the last chord in that symphony of the culture of the Renaissance.