Tribes: You can not pardon
Africa – the second largest mainland after Eurasia, and hundreds of tribes live on its territory, they speak hundreds of languages, hundreds of cults. The difference between the traditions of the nationalities of South Afiopia and Ethiopia – as between the Chinese and Russians, for example. Paganism, Islam, several confession of Christianity, religious syncretism, connecting pantheism with monotheism, – all this is buried, boils and sometimes "splashing" outside the most interesting splashes. However, in the consciousness of the majority, the entire culture of these peoples is summarized in one phrase: "African traditions". We tell about those who have borrowing on the territory of Ethiopia.
Out of marriage – out of law
Among the tribes of the OMO Valley in Ethiopia, despite the fact that the trunk sex is not tabernated and is widely practiced on the traditional Harvest holidays and other festivals, one of the strictest prohibitions is the birth of an illegal child – before marriage or married, but not from her husband. The pregnant woman in this case is obliged to get rid of the child, making an abortion or killing him immediately after delivery. However, not only the presence of a husband in a woman legitimizes conception and childbirth – required compliance with the whole chain of rituals, blessings and priests, so that the born baby has been adopted by the community. Otherwise, he will receive the status of Mini – bringing the misfortune of a tribe marked by the devil – and should also be killed. Symptoms, for which the child will become Minhi, quite a lot: the lack of rituals before conception and childbirth, blue eyes, vitiligo and even the appearance of the first tooth from above, and not below. Such children in Omo take away from the mother and attribute to the forest or to the river. Taba for accommodation in the village of the Mini, perhaps, is one of the strongest in this region.
As well as in monotheistic religions, most of the tribes of African horns (Somalia and Ethiopia) and Central Africa (Chad, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Angola, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, San Tome and Principe) there is a ban for sexual relationship with a woman after childbirth. That is considered unclean for 40 days in the case of the birth of a boy and 80 days in the case of the birth of a girl. For childbirth, the woman is forced to leave the village to Savannah, and after them is obliged to live in a sacred hut, until it becomes again ritually clean and free for any physical contact.
Unconditional and unequivocal taboos are all homosexual ties, regardless of which African country, we are talking about, as well as incets and close-friendly mixing of the maternal line. In the countries of the African horns, homosexuality is a criminal offense at the state level, and in the pagan tribes, you will be killed at the best case in the pagan tribes. In this case, the scandals associated with women are almost unknown in this case, so you can say, most likely, about a more loyal society of society, and also – about a more oppressed position of a woman in this society, which is not able to show its sexuality.
There is a lot of taboos also on the relationship between family and daughters. So, in the Hamar tribe living in the Valley of the OMO River in Ethiopia, daughters have the status of Shoshi – a temporary guest. And in the nearby tribe of Dassenchez, almost all contacts between daughter and mother, and the daughter fully passes into the disposal of her husband and his parents. Often it leads to a ban on a touch of mother’s daughter. There are cases when a deceased woman was not to bury someone, since she had one daughters from heirs, who were forbidden to enter the house to the mother. In principle, despite the fact that the birth of girls in the family is considered to be a big luck and gifts of the gods (they are married, receiving Duries – redemption, sometimes 20-30 goats, sheep or cows), sons are critical for parents, because it is with them Permanent contact, spiritual and physical preserves, unlike daughters who "cut off" from their parents, moving married.
Serve them right hand
If you have ever drinking coffee in one of the traditional roadside Ethiopian cafes, you will probably notice not only how the coffee ceremony is structured, but also the fact that coffee you will pour, holding a coffee pot exclusively in the right hand, supporting it under the wrist left. I will pass it too exclusively with your right hand, and it will be so everywhere, ranging from the Meshepolis Addis Ababa and ending with the most deaf. This tradition talks about the "purity" of the right hand, so all the important actions, like the infusion of coffee, the transfer of money, handshake and t. D., It is precisely her, and not left, which would be considered disrespect and bad tone.
Another extensive group of taboos is associated with a ban on the use of certain types of food. So, for example, in the already mentioned Hamar tribe in the period between engagement and wedding, the bridegroom is completely prohibited by the use of plant food. However, 99% of all food tabups affect women during pregnancy or lactation or the female floor as a whole. Such prohibitions in popular beliefs are designed to alleviate pregnancy and childbirth, but in practice the nutrients exclude almost completely.
So, for example, in the Ethiopian highlands and southern part of the country among 25 (!) ethnic groups of white food, i.e. milk, bold meat, potatoes, bananas, porridge and t. D., completely banned by pregnant and nursing women, as well as children. By and large, the food is allowed to apply only the gray grace of tef, corn, sorgum and the minimum amount of non-white vegetables and fruits. Green sharp pepper is also banned during this period, as leading to a unpleasant smell of mother and child.
Goats – Men, Coffee – Damas
In addition to the diet there are certain classes, invalid for women. For example, in the hartar tribe women strictly forbidden to milk goats or sheep, collect honey, cover the hut grass. Similarly, there are exclusively female activities, for example, to cook in the jugs (men are fried on the fire) and cook coffee. A man who dares to cook coffee will be checked by unintermakers and his social status in the tribe will be at risk.
Unfortunately, urbanization and technological progress contribute to the fact that the majority of small ethnic groups will sooner or later lose their individuality. One of the best ways to discover the world of African traditions, beliefs and rituals is to visit Africa independently or as part of ethnographic expeditions to West Africa and the countries of the African horns and see how black continent of the born, colorful and diverse.