Tulum (Tulum)

Tulum (Tulum) – Resort town and archaeological zone on the Caribbean coast Mexico. Located 112 km from Cancun Airport and 58 km from Playa del Carmen. Population – 18 233 people (2010).

Tulum is part of the resort area of ​​Riviera Maya and consists of 3 parts: archaeological region, city and zone with hotels.

Local beaches are considered the best on the world of Maja Riviera.

Ruins Tuluma – one of the most visited archaeological objects of Mexico, along with the cities of Teotihuacan and Chichen Itsa.

In comparison with other cities of Maya, the territory of the archaeological zone in Tuluma occupies a small area. The good preservation of the ancient city and its proximity to the sea resorts located along the Caribbean coast of Mexico made it a popular tourist destination.

Tulum was previously known called herself, which means «City of Dawn». The word "tulúM "in Yukateque means" fence "or" wall ", and the walls around the city allowed to defend him from attacks. Given the numerous images (including on the frescoes) of the descending God, it can be assumed that Tulum was an important center for worshiping this deity.

The city first mentioned Konquistador Juan Diaz, who visited him during the 1518 expedition. The first detailed description of the ruins published in 1843 by the American traveler John Lloyd Stevens and the English traveler Frederick Katerwood in the book "Moments from Juchantan travel". They accounted for accurate maps of the ancient city and its walls and painted structures with photographic accuracy. In addition, Stevens and Katerwood found Stelu dated to the beginning of the classic era, on which there was a 1764 mark and which was probably brought from the neighboring city.

Research work was continued at the beginning of 1913 by Silvanus Morley and George P. Huwu, and then the Carnegie Institute from 1916 to 1924. Further studies have made it possible to attribute to the emergence of Tulum to the late post-class period, approximately 1200. The city existed to the first contacts with the Spaniards at the beginning of the XVI century, after which he began to gradually be allowed and was abandoned by the end of the XVI century.

Tulum (Tulum)

Tulum architecture typical for the cities of the Eastern Coast of the Peninsula.

Tulum is one of the most famous fortified cities of Maya. On the one hand, it was protected by steep cliffs, climbing in the sea, and from the Sushi side – Wall height 3-5 m. The fortress wall was a thickness of about 8 meters and had a length of 400 m with a parallel side coast. The side parts of the wall were 170 m long each. In the southwestern and northwestern corners there were buildings that were probably used as watchtowers. So monumental fortification speaks of high significance of the city for Maya.

Among the buildings of the city stands out Temple of fresok (Temple of the Frescoes), which includes two small galleries – on the first and second floor. Statues in niches depicting Mayan «Descending God» Located on the facade of the temple. Images of this deity are also available in the central temple of the descending God – above the entrance to his western pavilion, the stucco statue of God has been preserved, which gave the name of the temple. Also preserved frescoes on the eastern wall made in a similar style of Mistec Puebla, which appeared in the highland regions of Mexico.

The central area of ​​the city is also located Castillo Fortress (El Castillo), Having a height of 7.5 m. The fortress was built on an older building, the roof of which was maintained by columns and overlaps. The small sanctuary was most likely used as a lighthouse for swimming boats. This building celebrates the gap in the barrier reef, which passes along the coast.

In the same place there is a small cove, the beach for landing and cleft in the cliffs, which made it perfect for mooring of trading boats. Probably such a set of geographical features and was the reason for the founding of Tulum, which was an important Mayan port to the late period of the Pecalklass era.

Tulum (Tulum)

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