Turkish dancing

The history of the people’s dance of Turkey begins in the deep past and is rooted in distant pagan times. To determine some common origins of dance traditions, it is very difficult, as the history of Anatolia is the story of many peoples: it’s both Frigians, Hettites, and Lydians, and Turks, Osmans, and Greeks, and Gypsies … People’s Turkish Dances are the result of the interpenetration of various cultures and traditions: nomadic, agricultural, military – for several thousand years.

However, the dances that we call in one word "Turkish" can be very different from each other depending on the country’s region – figuratively speaking, the barrel one, branches are different. For example, in the Aegean region and Western Anatolia, the traditional dance – Zeibek, in Central and South Anatolia prevailing Khalai, Chernomorery – the territory of Horona, in Eastern Anatolia prefer the dance bar, and the favorite Dance tracia – choir. Of course, this does not mean that in every region they dance exclusively "their" dances: we can, for example, observe the dance of the "choir" and in some places in Western Turkey, such as, say, Chanakkale. We will get acquainted with them a few more.

ZEYBEK (Zeybek)
In the old days, the word "Zeibek" (in Central Anatolia – "Seyman") meant "Warrior"; later so began to call folk militia fighters in the days of wars. Then this word remained only in folklore. It’s a "male" dance, but sometimes women can take part in it. Zameybek can be both pair and group. The dance begins with slow movements, then sharply speeds up with music. The main figure of dance is a turn on one leg with a simultaneous fall out of the second leg bent in the knee: this movement symbolizes the hectic power. In some versions of dance, dancers swing the dancers or short swords. Musical accompaniment: Davul (drum) and Zurna (species of swirls), in some areas – Baglam and SAZ (string instruments).

Distribution Areas: Aydin, Izmir, Muula, Denizli, Bibleyk, Eskisehir, Kutakhiya, Chanakkale, Kastamonu, Ushak, Manisa, Balikecire, Budour.

Halay (halay)
The history of this dance begins with the times of the Assyrian kingdom. The word "halai" initially could mean travelers. Currently it is a dance like a dance. Dancing this type are conventionally divided into steppe Halay, Chukurov (by the name of the terrain, where he enjoys the greatest popularity) Halay and East Halay. Figures and movements are very diverse and many options can have in different regions, but mostly during dance dancers (men or / and women) form a circle or row. Leading take each other for the finger or by the shoulder, sometimes under the arms, and the closures hold a large colorful handkerchief in their hands, which is called "Mendil". Music accompaniment – very rhythmic, gradually becoming becoming faster. Tools: Davel, Zurena, Baglam, various types of swirls.

Today, Khalai is considered one of the most wonderful Turkish dances. Jacket execution – this is usually weddings, pre-wedding parties, wires in the army and all sorts of festivals.

Dancers in Khalaye should be at least three people – it does not matter – there will be men or women. Dancing should take the hands, more precisely for the little men, standing very close to each other, and form a car, gradually forming a semicircle under the tact of music. The first and last dancer in such a rank holds colored handkerchiefs, swinging them under musical notes. At first it may seem that this is a monotonous dance, but its pace is gradually accelerating, and dancers need to show amazing skills to fit the rhythm of music and not make mistakes.

Distribution Areas: Bitlis, Bingoele, Diyarbakyr, Elazoy, Malatya, Kahramanmar, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Erzincan, Sivas, Mardin, Mush, Jozgat, Chorum, Adana, Ankara, Siirt, Hatay, Tokat, Shanliurf.

Horon (Horon)
Typical dance of the Black Sea region. His name comes from the Greek word &# 935;&# 959;&# 961;&# 972;&# 962;, what is translated simply as a "dance". This is a group dance. Dance both men and women. Participants form a circle or semicircle and dance, bending around and circling, as well as to print, throwing away the legs forward and having tricking. Musical accompaniment – in a very fast pace. Tools: mostly given and Zurna; In some areas of Tulumba, Mei, Jura (Types of Swirls) and Kemanche (Bed tool).

Distribution areas: Trabzon, Samsun, Artwin, Horde, Rise.

Bar (BAR) Dance, popular in Eastern Anatolia. Dance Bar is female and male. Men typically dance groups of 16 people, women in 12. Participants take each other by hands, just as it is done in Khalaye, and dance, lined up in line. There is a "closed" version of the bar (dancing approaching each other almost closely) and "open" (at some distance). The female bar is dancing more smoothly and can be accompanied by songs, male – more rigid and rhythmic. Musical accompaniment: Davel, Zurena, Kemanc.

Distribution areas: Erzurum, Kars, Aaara, Ardachan, Gyumyushhan, Bayburt, Erzincan.

Hora (Hora) The total name of the dances common in the field of tracia and some areas of Western Anatolia. For this dance is characterized by a very fast pace and rhythm. Men or women lined up in a row, goss out hands, and dance, squeezing and throwing her feet forward. Musical accompaniment: Davul, Zurena.

Distribution areas: Edirne, Kyrklareli, Tekirdag, Chanakkale.

Karshilam (Kar&# 351;&# 305; Lama or Kar&# 351;&# 305; L&# 305; kl&# 305; oyunlar&# 305;) The name of this type of dancing can be conditionally translated as "dances of a mutual greeting". This is a pair dance whose figures may vary depending on the region. Starts in slow rhythm, the pace increases gradually. Men and women in two rows move apart, turning face to face, then bypassing each other, dropping to her knees and clapping in your hands.

Distribution areas: Edirne, Kyrklareli, Tekirdag, Izmit, Adarazara, Chanakkale, Bursa, Biling.

Kashik (KA&# 351;&# 305; k): "Kashik" translates as a "spoon". Dancing with spoons are popular in many regions of Turkey – from the West to the south of Anatoly. Dance either in two rows face to each other or in a circle. Part of the participants can also sit, forming a semicircle. Both dancers and sitting, but beat off the rhythm with wooden spoons, one in each hand. Musical accompaniment: Davul, Baglam, Kemanc and vocals (songs).

Distribution areas: Eskisehir, Af Rihon, Kutakhiye, Baigaik, Kyroshir, Konya, Mersin, Antalya, Bolu, Bursa.

Bengi or Beng (Beng (I): "Bengi Oyunu" means "dance without end". Circular dance dance type, similar to Khalai and Horon. Dancing form a circle and dance – first slowly and smoothly, and then faster; Movements become sharper. Often accompanied by songs or purchases.

Distribution areas: Marble Sea Region, as well as Balikesire, Manisa, Bursa, Chanakkale.

Dances based on the imitation of animals and bird movements are common in various parts of Turkey – "Ducks" (Bolu), "Buffaloes" (Kyrklarel), "Pigeons" (Erzurum), as well as portraying various situations involving animals – "Cock dances" ( Yozgat), "Bear Dances" (Bitlis), "Wolf and Lamin" (Diyarbakyr) and T. NS.

Turkish dancing

There are also dancing characteristic of representatives of certain professions: "Butches" (Edirne), "Maslodes" (Izmir), "Forestry" (Kastamonu).

Many Anatolian dances are played by small scenes from everyday life, talking about relations between people, about life, about natural phenomena: Jalai "Work" (Sivas), "Revnivets" (Kars), Bar "Dagger" (Erzurum), "Rinse" (Kutahya), "Rain goes" (Nevsehir), "Fog in the mountains" (Giresun) and many others. Among the dancing of such the subject, the Black Sea dance "Sabers" stands out. This dance is quite modern – he originated in Trabzon in the 30s. Should noted that there is no reason for any "sausage" of its name, of course. His literal translation – KOL BAST&# 305; – "Sucking on the shoulder", that is, "caught up (caught)". As they say, this name was invented by trabzon port hooligans on which the police arranged. In their songs (and couldn’t the classic of Turkish threatening folklore arise not from the Black Sea?) The words were repeated: ‘Geldiler, Bast&# 305; LAR, VURDULAR..’"They came, caught up, broke …" When he was in the beer, it was necessary to think. That Odessa for us, then for the Turks – Trabzon. The people liked the dance, he quickly became popular not only in Trabzon, but in all of Turkey, and if we look at the beginning of the video, then in other countries.

Religious dances

The earliest religious dances in Turkey are various ritual dances involving Shamanov (KAM). I wonder what shamanism as a religion on this earth was not. There was a faith in a single heavenly god (Gok Tanr?), and the shamans sang their chants and dedicated ritual dances (who performed, circling around the fire) the spirits of the earth, fire, water of the air, however, the Turks were prayed only to the Divine, the Creator of the Earth and Heaven – not a formidable, not punishing, but carrying love to the world light. With the arrival in the 6th century of Islamic conquerors began the brutal struggle with Turkic traditions: the Arab military leaders burned the Turkic books, killed shamans and prohibited rites. Turkic culture was subjected to persecutions, subsequently, it was partially Islamized, partially left underground, but it was impossible to eradicate her to the Arabs. Twisted century, new rites were born, but the former was not committed to oblivion.

Sema (SEMA): In the XII century, the Persian religious philosopher and the poet Jilalettin Rumi (Mevlyan), many years lived in Konia (Central Anatolia) founded the Sufi Order of Mevlev. Dervishes – members of the Order had a peculiar ritual dance of "Sema" ("Heaven"), in which dancing him spinned, like the ancient priests of the Turkic cult.

According to legend, Rumi, passing around the bazaar, heard a thin ringing of a hammer heard from the workshop of a jeweler. The sound was so melodic that the philosopher (and he was a poet!) Slipped in dance, pronouncing poems about the search for the meaning of being. After the death of the Mevlyans, this circling dance was improved and accepted in the Order of Mevlevi as an expression of spiritual search and unity with the Almighty.

Dance consists of four parts. The first is called CARK ("Wheel") and symbolizes the beginning of the life path – "Spring" of human life, its first 20 years. Dancing (Semazen) slowly make circular movements around their axis. In the second part (RAKS), music begins to sound, as a sign of the start of the search for truth (continuation of the human life path – from 20 to 40 years). Movements become sharper and faster. The third part (MUALLAK; the word of Arabic origin, meaning something like a purification) symbolizes the transition from youth to maturity, from 40 to 60 years old – this period at Mevlev is considered to be the best time in life when the soul matures for knowledge. Final, the fourth part is called pertav (Persian word, its meaning – a splash or spill). Smooth, harmonious movements symbolize the achievement of the age of complete maturity – after 60 years. This is the period of comprehending the truth, at the end of which the earth’s path is destined to end. The dancer always turns his head slightly to the right, and his right hand raises up, the left – down (as a sign of the divine origin of man, and the limbs of his earthly being). Semazens are dressed in fluttering clothes, called Tennure. These clothes are white, which symbolizes the high knowledge and light heavenly.

Circular dance movements are designed to personify the infinity of the universe. One of the dancing (Semazenba&# 351;&# 305;) Always in the center of the circle, symbolizing the sun, around which the planet’s turn is made, but the deep meaning of his role is to create the image of God to which every person is approached, comprehended truth. Dance seed dancing and nowadays.

Musical accompaniment: she (reed sweater), Kuduym (Rod Barabana), UD (Lute) and Kemanche.

Semah: the ritual dance of another Sufi Order – Bektashi, founded by Dervysh Hadji Bektash-I-Velo – compatriot and contemporary room. The fundamental idea of ​​his teaching is love for God, manifested in love for people. In this teaching, Islam is intertwined with the ancient Turkic beliefs. Followers of Haji’s religious views expressed in verses and music. Their dance was called, almost the same as Mevlevi – Seam. In the old days he was danced secretly. Unlike Mevlev, women could take part in it. Closed meetings, where the dance actually interviewed, was called CEM ("Jam", that is, "Break"). Bektashi ceremonies, unlike Mevlev, have always been carried out on Persian – adopted at that time poetic language – and in Turkish.

Sem dancing in a circle, sometimes in pairs. Dancers turn, rhythmically moving hands in tact movement of legs. Their clothes – folk costume. The origin of the dance of Semakh – Turkic, he came to Anatoly with Central Asian nomads and was only a few modified for the Sufi Ritual.

Turkish dancing

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