Turku (Turku) or Swede. Abo (Åbo) – Port city in the southwest of Finland, located 165 km from Helsinki, in the Auraioka River in the Archipelago Sea. River divides the city into two parts – Northern and South. Population – 177 342 people (2010).
Turku is one of the oldest cities of the country, until 1809 was the capital of Finland. The city is also an important cultural and economic center, in 2010, together with Tallinn, he was elected the cultural capital of Europe 2011.
The city is officially bilingual: Finnish language as the main one is used by 87.7%; Swedish is native for 5.3% of the population.
The best time to visit the Turku – Summer, when, in addition to attractions, you can also fully enjoy the picturesque Finnish nature, as well as visit the regularly held festivals here.
Turki Cathedral (Turun Tuomiokirkko) – Main Lutheran Temple in Finland. Built in the second half of the XIII century in the north-gothic style and is consecrated in 1300 in honor of the Virgin Mary and the first bishop of the country – Holy Heinrich, having killed Finland.
The first stone cathedral was much less than the current. His facade was on the place where the department is now located. Below was the arch, overlapping space.
In the Middle Ages, the cathedral was repeatedly rebuilt and expanded. In the XV century, side chapels were attached to the cathedral. A little later, the height of the central neopa arch was increased to modern sizes (24 meters). In 1827, the cathedral was seriously injured by fire. 101-meter tower of the cathedral was built when restoring the cathedral and became a symbol of the city of Turku. In 1980, a new 81-register body was installed in the cathedral.
Open daily from 9:00 to 19:00 (until 20:00 from the middle of April to mid-September), the entrance is free.
Turku Castle (Turun Linna) – Swedish castle in the city of Turku, built in 1280. Is one of the most remarkable medieval castles of Finland. The castle in the Middle Ages and later, in the XVI century, during the Renaissance period, repeatedly expanded.
At the beginning of the new time, as a result of changes caused by military events, medieval castles lost their importance. Since the end of the XVI century, the Turku Castle was used primarily as a prison and storage. And from the end of the XIX century he served as a museum, although it was badly damaged in the summer of 1941 as a result of the bombardment of the Soviet air force. As a result, the castle had to carry out wide repair and restoration work.
Currently, Turku Castle is among the most important monuments of the history of Finland’s construction. In the premises of the castle there is a historical museum of the city of Turku, jumped by the district museum Turku. In addition, the chapel of the castle is popular as a place of weddings, and the Renaissance halls of the castle can be rented for the holiday.
Luostarinm Museum (LuostarinmäEN KäSITYöLäISMUSEO) – Open-air Museum in the center of Turku, located near the Hill of Vartioori.
Represents 18 blocks in which in more than thirty authentic wooden houses preserved at the initial places, presented traditional craft workshops and residential premises and through them – Construction traditions, the use of wood, as well as the everyday life of Finnish artisans living in the XIX and XX centuries. Among others, presented, for example, at home Sailor and carpenter, watch masters workshop and tobacco manufacturer house.
The museum has its own mail and a small store in which you can buy vintage sweets and Finnish handicraft products. In addition to old housing of the XIX century, the house of men who lived in the museum in the 1960s are also presented here. and one-room apartment of an old woman who died in the 1980s., The last resident in the museum.
The first houses on the territory of Luzainarmäki were erected at the end of the XVIII century abroad of the then city as a residential area for lower estates: middle class and artisans. The oldest plot was measured in 1789., And the newest – In 1803. Practically a residential area at the beginning of the XIX century was in the famous clappers. The area that escaped from the fire of 1827 was located aside, next to the hill of Vartiovuori, who at that time was a solid rock, so the sparks could not get to the roofs of Luzontarmäki.
Preserved after the fire structure according to the development plan to. L. Engel was ordered to disassemble. But the idea of the preservation of the area and the foundation of the museum of artisans led to the creation of the museum, and the museum was opened on June 29, 1940. In 1943. The museum organized the first days of handicraft arts, which were subsequently expanded to the artistic art of handicrafts held at the end of August.
Sailing Fregat Suomen Joutsen (Suomen Joutsen) – Finnish Naval Forces Training Ship, now ship Museum. The sailboat was built and launched on October 16, 1902 in France.
Posankka – Statue in the Finnish city of Turku. Located in front of the hotel-water park «Karibia», The symbol of which is, in the immediate vicinity of the campus of the University of Turku and the Student Town. Is a hybrid image of pigs and ducks. Looks like a pink animal with a body and a duck head, but with a pork patch and tail. The statue designed Alwar Gullichsen in 1999. Initially, the statue of swimming on the Auraioki River. In 2001, the statue was placed on its current place
A restaurant «Puetorin Vesse» (PUUTORIN VESSA) – The attraction of the city of Turku. The restaurant was opened in 1997 on Puutori Square («Wooden Square») Indoor, where from 1933 to 1986 there was a public toilet. The furnishings inside the restaurant operates the theme of the former use of the building and is saturated with a specific «Toilet humor». Restaurant Owner – Last Musician Lasse Laasons.
The exact date of the base of the city is unknown, however, according to Russian sources, in 1191, Novgorod, together with Karelami, make a marine campaign to Finland against Swedes, during which Abo.
In 1318, the Novgorod residents burned the city, after the conclusion of the world, the city began to rejuvenate.
He received the right of city in the 1290s, but only after 1309 there is a document in which Abo is called the city. From this time, the print and coat of arms are known.
In 1323, the Orekhovsky world was concluded, which established the borders between the Novgorod Earth and the Swedish Kingdom. The collisions with the Novgorod Republic ceased, and from these years the prosperity of the city began. To this period also includes the entry of the city to the Hanseatic Union.
In 1409, their own money was launched in Turku, which differed in value from those used in Sweden.
In 1628, the King of Sweden Gustav-Adolf established a gymnasium, which since 1640 by the efforts of the Graph Pen Brage was transformed into a university – the Royal Academy of Abo.
In 1713, during the Great Northern War, Peter I began military actions in Finland and on August 28, Russian troops under the superior of Peter I and Admiral General Count Apraksin took Turku – the capital of Finland. This period is noted in history as a great lighter for the civilian population. The troops remained in the city until the end of the war in 1721.
During the Russian-Swedish war, 1741-1743 Russian troops under the superior of the Bruce graph on September 8, 1742 took Turku. After the conclusion of the Abosh world, which completed the war, the Russian troops occupied the city.
In February 1808, Russia and Sweden began the war again. Already 10 (22) March 1808, the army of General Dmitry Shepelev took Turku. According to the Friedrichsgam world, signed in 1809, Finland went to Russia.
Turku retained the value of the capital of the country until 1817, when the Finnish Senate was translated into Helsinki. After that, the Turku became the provincial city. He was the end point of the branch of Toyala Turku of the Finnish Railway, and also remained the location of the governor, Lutheran Archbishop, foreign consuls, the court chamber.
In 1827, a huge fire happened to the Turku, which almost completely destroyed the city. After the fire, he was built on a new plan, with straight, wide streets; home low, almost solid stone. Also after the fire, the university was transferred to Helsinki.
According to the 1880, the population of the city was: Finns – 53.6%, Swedes – 41.9%.
In the Russian civil war, the Turku was, as well as all major cities, in their hands, «Red». War, however, was fleeting, and by the spring of 1918 the red retreated from the city.
In 1918, a Swedish-hour University of ABO Academy and Finnoad University of Turku were recreated.
During the winter war and the Soviet-Finnish war 1941-1944, the city suffered from bombing of the USSR. The Turku’s castle was also injured, and its surroundings and the Martti region were almost completely comparable to Earth.
During the winter war, the Soviet Union dropped about 4,000 bombs on Turku, because of which over 600 buildings were injured. 52 people died from bombardments, and 151 were injured. Turku was the second after Vyborg the most bombarded city.
After the final of the war, the President and Commander-in-Chief of Finland, Gustav Mannerheim, was the idea of transferring the capital from Helsinki to Turku, since after the conclusion of the Moscow truce in 1944, Finland was obliged to submit the USSR for rent instead of Cape Hanko Pokcall Peninsula with surroundings, which is just 17 km from Helsinki.
Turku – FINLAND MAIL TRANSPORT KNOT. The city intersect car and railway highways, there are large marine and river ports, as well as airport.
The basis of the road network is the motorway E 18 leading through the port in Sweden and Norway, and in Finland along the route: Turku – Helsinki – Kotka (and further to St. Petersburg);
highway E 63 Connects: Turku – Tampere – Jyvaskyul – Kuopio;
highway E 08 Connects: Turku – Rauma – Pori – Vaasa – Kokkola – Raahe – Oulu – Kemi – Tornio – Tromso.
Old Royal Road runs on the route Turku – Hämeenlinna – Vyborg.
City Transport Turku – Bus. The bus network is developed, the timetable is observed. Home TRANSPORT IN THE CITY – TRADING SQUARE (KAUPPATORI), where almost all buses come. There are no lines in Turku on which buses drive through the city in a circle, so to cross the city, you need to get to the market square and already there to take the bus, next in the right direction.
To stop the required regular bus on the track, the passenger gives the driver by the driver’s hand sign (raises his hand). Inside the bus passenger presses the red button in advance «Stop» (Buttons are located above the seats or on metal orders) to stop transport. In Finland, it is customary to sit while moving in transport. Front places (for the driver) are usually left for older people and people with limited physical abilities.
Ticket (KERTALIPU) costs 2.5 euros, it acts within 2 hours and allows you to travel to different bus routes. The cost of the daily travel ticket for 24 hours (Matkailulippu) – 5.5 euros. There is a discount system.
The Auraioki River divides the city into two parts – North and South. Shores bind seven bridges. In the lower river the river, where the bridge would interfere with navigation, crossing pedestrians and cyclists carries free ferry (FöRi), running from 6:15 to 21:00 (23:00 in the summer).
In the central part of the city there is a bus station (Linja-Autoasema), from which long-distance buses are sent. An international bus to St. Petersburg through Helsinki every day.
Payment of travel is carried out both on the bus station and directly from the driver (or a cashier running on the line). The passenger calls the driver the place of its following (or stop). When buying a ticket to both End (Meno-Paluu) gives a discount (the return ticket is valid for 30 calendar days).
Ride the Turku on a taxi is convenient, but quite expensive, the cost of filing a car about 5-8 euros, after which it will have to pay 1-2 euros for each mile.
Turku Railway Station (Turun RautatieSema) – Large Transport Knot. It is located close to the historic center and connects the city with all the largest settlements of Finland.
Transportation is carried out by VR.
Passenger trains coming to Turku Train Station from other cities, followed by the port of Turku, to Ferries on Stockholm.
Port Turku is located on the banks of the Archipelago Sea to the West from the city center. Through the port goes per year over 4 million. tons of cargo and over 4 million. Passengers. The port is the only country for the adoption of railway ferries.
From the port of Turku daily walk ferries Silja Line and Viking Line in Stockholm and the Aland Islands in Mariehamn and Longnes.
Turku Airport is 8 km north of the central part of the city. Bus number 1 goes to the airport from shopping square. In addition to domestic flights, flights to Stockholm, Copenhagen, Riga and Gdansk are carried out.
Turku Airport is 8 km from the city. Domestic flights from Helsinki, Mariehamna, Oulu and Tampere, as well as regular international flights from Budapest, Riga, Warsaw, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Tallinn and Gdanska.
From the airport to the Market Square Turku hosts the bus number 1.
The VR trains depart from Helsinki (2 hours in the way, ticket costs are 30-35 euros), Tampere (1.5 hours, 25-27 euros), pikesymyki (6 hours, 50-60 euros) and Kuopio (7 hours, 60-67 euros), in addition, there are night trains from Rovaniemi.
On a ferryboat
The port is located next to the Turku castle, to the city center from it can be reached by bus number 1.
From the port of Turku daily walk ferries Silja Line and Viking Line in Stockholm and the Aland Islands in Mariehamn and Longnes.