Types of volcanoes, stages of their eruptions and your actions during the elements

Volcanoes play an important role in the life of our planet. His "quick-tempered" some of them are capable of changing the position of things not only around themselves, but also on other continents.

Hawaiian eruption type / volcanic types. Photo Credit: Volcanoman

An example is the eruption of Toboba volcanoes, Tobbor and Krakataau. The first and second, caused the "volcanic winter" and temporary global cooling. The third, with the next eruption, scattered around the stones in a radius of 500 km and demolished more than 160 settlements. Bush, he practically destroyed the island on which it stands, and his excitement caused tsunami. But the disastrous energy of volcanoes, it is rather a side effect, their main role &# 8212; give life.

The role of volcanoes

In underground labyrinths, incredible processes are as a result of which hundreds of beneficial substances are born. Hanging volcanoes are still "spinning" life-looking substances. Thus, participating in the formation of the earth’s crust, hydrosphere and atmosphere, they literally the word are a source of life for our planet. Monstering water vapor and gases, volcanoes provide for all living balance in the Earth’s biosphere. Finally, volcanoes make land fertile, and their geasers are sources of geothermal energy.

For his long life, the earth has undergone many metamorphosis and who knows how many more transformations will have to survive. Her continents were combined into one supercontinent, they once again disintegrate. Then they were twenty, then thirteen, at the moment six. But as a result, they can again merge into a single page. Each such decompression was accompanied by the formation of powerful volcanic belts, which pass through the outskirts of the continents (along the lines of their faults).

Volcanic belts can be seen in action. At the moment there are several hundred active volcanoes. Most of them are concentrated in the frame of the silent ocean belt. So-called fire ring &# 8212; The length of which over 30,000 km. In this region there are more than 75% of eruptions and earthquakes in the world. About 50-60 volcanoes are erupted annually, 10-15 are in constant activity. In addition, there are about 1500 potentially active volcanoes on the planet.

Types of volcanoes and types of their eruptions

According to activity, volcanoes are divided into three categories: existing, sleeping and extinct. Acting Volcano is considered if he everacted over the last 10,000 years. Sleeping &# 8212; if a long time did not show any activity. "Sleep" of such a volcano can be 700,000 years, as it was in the case of Yellowstone or with a Toba volcano, which dreamed about 380,000 years. And finally, extinct It is considered that volcano that does not receive a lava feed.

Mighty volcanoes differ from each other not only activity, but also by the form, type of eruption, location and many other parameters. There are many non-classified volcanoes, but at the same time, allocate the main common types.

Shield volcanoes

These are natural buildings with gentle slopes. Type of their eruption &# 8212; Icelandic or Hawaiian (fissure outpouring). Hawaiian type eruptions, characterized by emissions of a very liquid, high-alignment basalt lava. At the same time, lava lakes with fountains can be formed hundreds of meters in height. At the same time, lava flows of small power, spread to tens of kilometers.

Hawaiian eruptions. Photo Credit: Volcanoman


Conical formations, around the eroch of which, develops clearly pronounced gentle or cool layered cone. Types of eruptions These volcanoes can be such as: Strombolian (calm, long eruption), volcanic (large eruptive clouds), plinician (pyroclastic flows), caldero-forming, freatic (emissions of bombs and debris), Pelian (Rassed avalanches or scorching clouds ).

As a rule, the eruptions of volcanic and plinian types are dominated by. Powerful explosions, accompanied by emissions of a huge number of tephra, forming ash and pumile streams. It is under Tefra, during the eruption of Vesuvia, Pompeii was buried. Plynian eruptions are dangerous, including because they occur suddenly and often without long, preliminary preparation.

This type includes a grand explosion in 1883. Indonesian volcano Krakatau, the sound from which was heard at a distance of up to 5,000 km, and volcanic ash rose to a hundredkilometer height. His eruption was accompanied by Tsunami, tens of thousands of people died in the huge waves of which (25-40 m). And as a result, there is a giant caldera on the spot of the islands of the Islands of Krakataau.

Lightning &# 8212; The right companion of eruptions. Vulcan Rindjani, Indonesia. Photo Credit: Oliver Spaltin

Types of volcanoes, stages of their eruptions and your actions during the elements

Pinaturoto volcanic eruption in Philippines, 1991. Photo Credit: Alberto Garcia, Corbis

Supervulkans (Calders)

They are formed due to a catastrophic explosion or a collapse of an empty focus of a magma, leaving after herself round depression. Caldera may pose a danger right up to a continental scale. Types of eruption of such volcanoes, mainly plumpy (pyroclastic flows) or Pelian (Rassed avalanches or scorching clouds).

Supervolkan is the most dangerous type of volcano. The eruption of such volcanoes may be the cause of strong global cooling, ongoing several years in a row. The decrease in temperature occurs as a result of the huge masses of sulfur and ash in the atmosphere. Examples include: Yellowstone Caldera in Yellowstone National Park and Valles Caldera in New Mexico, Lake Taupo in New Zealand, Lake Toba on Sumatra and Nortogoro Crater in Tanzania, as well as Krakatoa Near Java and Sumatra.

Supervulkan Yellowstone. Yellowstone National Park, United States. Photo Credit: Nypost

Slag cone

During the eruption of the volcano, large pieces of slags are superimposed around the crater in the form of a cone, and small form a gentle slopes, as a result, with each subsequent eruption, the volcano is rapidly growing in height. A similar volcano can continuously erupt for decades, and for the year of its activity, it is capable of growing at 300-400 meters. An example of a slag cone can serve as Parikin in Mexico or Kamchatka Flat Tobach, located on the basis of an ancient shield volcano.

Volcano eruption Flat Tolbachik / Russian Geographical Society

Complex volcanoes

These volcanoes are a combination of several types of indicated above. These include Homa in Kenya, Pakaya in Guatemala, as well as Kelimut in Indonesia.

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