"Ukraine. Our common house". Kamenets-Podolsky
I will start with the Kamenets-Podolsk fortress. Let it be symbolic. What would this project become strong as the walls of this castle.
According to one of theories, Polish historians, at the beginning of the XIX century, supported by architects-restorers Evgenia Plaryak and her daughter, the beginning of the fortress city reaches the beginning of the I millennium of our era and is associated with Dak-Roman wars. At the beginning of the II century, our era, Dakia won the Roman Emperor Traian, turning it into the province of his empire. At the same time, the Romans were monitored and adjacent to Dacia territory of Transnistria. The hypothesis identifies Kamenets with one of the Daxian cities – Clapidavaya. It is quite skeptical of contemporary historians. Even discovered in recent decades on the territory of the old castle the remains of the oldest defensive system of the city, which are supposedly dated to the first century of our era, do not convince supporters "Official" Versions of the founding of Kamenza Princes of Koriatovichi in the XIV century.Li Li Kamenets used to be pliable, probably will forever remain a mystery. But, taking into account the location of the modern Kamens on the rocky island, which has natural protection from all sides, the settlement at this point simply could not do not exist. Moreover, if Podolia at that time was settled by people (the Greek of Claudius Ptolemy recalls). But whether fortification was already another question.
So, if you believe the hypothesis of the pladen, strengthening on the territory of the old fortress arose in the first century of our era, and the appearance of the first stone fortifications – the beginning of the II century, T.E. in the period of trajan wars. The defense system consisted of two levels: external and internal, and defensive towers could remind the Towers of the Dafa and Roman fortresses.
Another hypothesis refers to the first mention of Kamenets in 1062, when Prince Fedor Dmitrievich after the destruction of the Armenian capital Ani invited Armenians to Kiev, Lviv and Kamenets. It was on this date that the power was relied, when the 1000th anniversary of the city celebrated in 1962. But Historik Yaroslav Dashkevich later established that allegedly a document on the provision of privileges to Armenians is a falsification, forged by Armenians in the XVIII century.
The greatest is the third, "Official" version of the founding of Kamens in the XIV century Lithuanian princes of coriatovichi. But today, almost no one has doubts that in the days of the Kiev Rus fortification in Kamenets existed. Confirmation of this is the cultural layer of half-meter thickness in the oldest surviving Tower of the Fortress – Day, dated XII – XIII centuries. At the end of the XII century, the remains of the ancient Roman towers (if any really existed) were strengthened by earthwoods and Rips and strengthened with a stone wall with mulleons and slug -anged loaves. Keynets, where the residence of the boyari or prince was located, from the north-east of Cape was additionally strengthened by the RV.
After the seizure of Ukrainian lands, including Ponium (so before, called Podolia) by the Golders, the new owners ordered to destroy the fortifications. Although, I already mentioned Olga Plaryatskaya assumes that Tatar-Mongols, on the contrary, restored the fortress and the bridge between the fortress and the city with the help of Armenian colonists, which appeared in the city just in Mongol times. In the last third of the XIII century, Ponimier was in possession of the Daman Golden Horde Foot.
In the 40s of the XIV century, the new name – Podolia begins from that time) to the authorities of the Lithuanian princes of Koriatovich. In 1362, the Great Lithuanian Prince Olgered Gediminovich Uncooked Tatars in the Battle of Blue Waters, after which the Lithuanian passed under the authorities of Lithuania. His nephews Koriatovichi became edited by Podolia: Yuri, Alexander, Boris, Konstantin and Fedor. The castle becomes their residence. They develop castle fortifications, increase the thickness and height of the walls, enhance the towers, lay the new part of the fortress. On its territory there was an Orthodox Church of the Intercession, and in the castle buildings, a hornice was located and a prince with an old-age. At the same time, Coriatovichi cast castles in a lounge, rock, Chervonogrud, Bacot, Vinnitsa, Meszhibazh.
First, Coriatovichi were allies of the Lithuanian Prince Lubart, but after signing in 1366 the agreements between the Polish kingdom and the Grand Prince Lithuanian, the brothers take the side of the Polish king Casimir III. On February 7, 1374, Yuri and Alexander Koriatovichi give the city Magdeburg law, which was then repeatedly confirmed by Polish kings.
Brothers right-handed stone alternately. After in 1374, Yuri became the ruler of the Moldovan Principality, the city rules Alexander with Boris. After the death of Alexander in 1378, Konstantin became the co-program. After the death of Constantine in 1391, Kamenets rules the last of the brothers – Fedor.
In 1393, Vitovt captures Podolia, and Fedor runs away to Hungary, leaving the castle of his Voyage Nestak. In the autumn of the same year, the fortress was first fallen in front of the enemy: Lithuanians led by a clit storm took a castle. Due to discord inside the Garrison, the protection did not have any resistance.
Next year, the Grand Duke Vitovt receives from the Polish king of Vladislav II Yagailo to hold the castle and adjacent territory. On the orders of the king in Kamenetsky, the guns and six barrels of porch appear. Vitovt for not long rules in Kamenets. King Yagailo, concerned about the rapid spread of the power of the Vitovt on the territory of Pododol, both Western and East, forces him to give way to Kamenets and Western Podolia and transfer him to the King’s property. Only Eastern Podolia remained. In the same year, the forty-year-old Polish-Lithuanian conflict begins, in which the opponent of the Polish king Yagailo speaks his younger brother Svidrigaylo.
In 1395, Yagailo provides Kamenets and West Podolia "for special merits" Krakow governor Spechko with Melshtina "in eternal and irrevocable possession". Spitko began the construction of four powerful castle towers: Tenchinskaya, Kovpak, Lianchoron and Horn, but did not have time to complete the work. After his death in the battle with Tatars in 1399, the king redeems the Western Podolia from his widow Elizabeth. In 1400, Yagailo presented Kamenets to his younger brother Prince Svidrigaylu. But for a while, because he filed claims to the Lithuanian throne, asked for help from the Crusader of the Teutonic Order and concluded the Union with them, for which he was left without Podolia in 1404, when it again passed to the King’s property.
In 1411, Yagailo was forced to give Kamenets Vitovt in accordance with the agreement between them. Vitovt continued the development of the castle in the direction of the city, starting the construction of the corner tower, which later received the name of the papal, and the black tower, which existed to the right of the modern entrance to the fortress and was destroyed during the Turkish siege of the city in 1672. After the death of Vitovt in 1430, the leaders of the Podolskaya gentry of Gritsyko Kirdeevich, the brothers Mikhail, theodoric and the peasille of Buchachie take control of Kamenets and other cities of Western Podelia. Svidrigaylo tries to return Kamenets, but unsuccessfully. The forty-year-old Polish-Lithuanian war ends in 1434, and the city together with the fortress finally passes to the Poles. In the same year, Kamenets becomes the capital of Podolsky Voivodeship and receives the coat of arms – the sun on the white field. And two years before Yagailo confirms the Magdeburg law provided by the city.
In 1463, Kamenets gets the status of the royal city. Besides east "Hebling" The capital of Poland, the city was a kind of redoubt of Christianity in the East, and therefore its fortifications were given important as the leadership of the Commonwealth and Rome. Back in 1451, Papa Nicholas V released a Podolskaya gentry from pilgrimage to the Apostolic capital, provided that half of the funds intended for pilgrimage, to strengthen Kamenetic fortifications.
In the same 1463, the Polish king Casimir Yagelonchik, by decision of the Piotrkiv Seimas, redeems the city at the then Older of Fyodor Buchachsky. On the same Seimas, it was decided to start working on strengthening the fortifications: partly due to the royal treasury, partly – for funds allocated by the Podolsk gentle. To handle the fortification concept of the city, the king sends to Kamenets the best in Poland of the Military Country Specialists Krakowski Castelan Yana with Tenchin, Sandomira Voivod Dzerzhislav with Rittin and Lviv Voivod Andrei Odrovrov. At the end of the 15th century, the Polish and Water Towers erected and the Tenchinskaya and Liang Territory were reconstructed. By 1494, the first famous description of the castle. From it we learn that the entrance to the fortress from the city was defended by the city gate, and from the North-Western, that is, from the enemy – a Polish gate. From the side of Polish films along the rocks were beating and stone walls with two towers. Opposite the modern Carvasar, the fortress was protected by rocks, and in the middle of the southern defensive line stood a small tower for the guard. The same tower was from the West, between her and a fleece gate were Khotyn earthy trenches. In the yard were the church, the House of Commandant, the premises for the guards and servants, warehouses of weapons and ammunition, bakery, brewery, stable. The garrison had 11 large and 4 small guns, 1 Tarasnitsa, a few mortira, about 100 bows (many of them are in poor condition), 32 gaksnitsa, 15 broken guns. The stock of food in the castle was not at all, and the soldiers did not receive the salaries in time.
The critical state of the fortifications described by the auditor has impressed both the king and the Pope of Roman. At the beginning of the XIV century, Pope Julius II directs the church tent on the restoration of four towers: Roings, Kovpak, White (Polish) and Papal. In honor of this for a while, all four towers called "Padko".