Under the sails of ecological ethics
Like many colorful names of remote places, the word "Zanzibar" – everyone is heard, but not associated with nothing with anything, but rather the vague dreams of "Miracle island". Of course, the real archipelago in the Indian Ocean is not only violent paints and the kingdom of exotic, but also everyday problems. True, here they sometimes are solved very original ..
The speed ferry between the mainland and Zanzibar is rapidly under the ocean waves. Passengers on board – fully, and their racial affiliation with difficulty can be determined "approximately". They are alone similar to Africans, others – on Arabs, and often all these features are mixed and merged together. As if for a complete confusion, Indian outfits flashed in the crowd ..
Such an ethnovinegret is characteristic of the Zanzibarsky archipelago. Trade relations that the centuries associated it with other coasts of the Indian Ocean, a logically led to relations personal between local and "Guests" – on a mass scale. As a result, there was a unique island community of dozens and hundreds of composite "Particles", combined only with general language, Swahili.
Closer to the islands, the ferry move slows down. The line of palm crowns grows on the horizon from iridescent solar glare, then the minarets of Stone Tauna arise and finally – the whiteness of the luxurious buildings of the time of the Sultanate.
"Earlier – says Said, pouring us tea with spices, – just in such an early, as it is now, everywhere in the city Rades, bells of sellers of coffee. Each self-respecting Zanzibaret started a day with a cup of mocha, drunk at the door of his own home". Said about seventy and "earlier" means for him – with monarchy, before the revolution of 1964.
In fact, Arabic custom start a day with strong coffee, probably good "fitted" These narrow streets that cause associations with so far from here by the old city quarters of Tunisia and Morocco. But today black mocha gave way to soluble burda called "Africa". Large Arab traders also left – over the past forty years, the features of the eve "Elegant era" Almost disappeared from the memory of Zanzibar. You can catch them today only in architecture: houses from white coral lime, with their richly decorated doors – quite unusual for Africa, the spectacle. Especially noticeable by the past Gloss in the appearance of Bay El-Adjaiba, wonderland, – the Sultan Palace of the XIX century. Now there is a museum.
However, majestic monuments are able to remind not only of glorious times when it was customary to say that "All East Africa dances under Zanzibar Dudka", but also about the main historical quality "African Venice": cosmopolitis in everything. In food, traditions, in religion. The towers of the two churches and the Hindu temple were torn to the sky over Zanzibar City (Stone Town represents his historical center) in parallel to the minarets of mosques … Although the latter, of course, is still much more: "The main faith" The archipelago remains Islam, brought here, like all the lands of Swahili, Arab merchants. It actually determines and directs social life, although the African start is mixed here. Say, women Zanzibar do not wear simple handkerchiefs or black chadras, and fully closed in motley fabrics, Kang Hangs, brought from the interior of Tanzania. And someone continues to spend the spirit of nature and demons at all (this is despite the fact that, according to official data, 98 percent of the population – Muslims!). So, they say that in 1972, 1980, 1995, 2000 and 2001, outbreaks of a particular activity of a certain demon named Potaveba, known for their tendency to depravate actions against men. Conscious people even prudently went to bed right on the street.
From Sultan to the Republic
Civilization of people who spoke to Swahili arose in the XI century. It was then that the tribes of the eastern shore of Africa ("Swahili" Comes from Arabic "Sakhil", "Coast") included in the busy trade on the Indian Ocean. She is fast "Led" them and the Arabian Peninsula and Persia and India, and even in China. It is clear that the Persian, and the Arab merchants, with whom Swahili tied close relations, were actively settled on their lands. At the same time, the settlement of Zanzibar, who initially ruled the Dynasty of Suakhili. Later, in the XVI century, Portuguese colonizers changed them, and those, in turn, were supplanted with the same Arabs from the Oman Sultanate. At the last stage, in the XIX century, the British were, who forced Sultan to recognize their protectorate as a result of the shortest war in history (according to the Guinness Book of Records!) – English frigate gave one artillery volley, and 20 minutes after the announcement of the start of hostilities, the ruler Zanzibar surrendered. What and retained autonomous power for the future. When colonies in Africa began one after another to gain independence (in the middle of the twentieth century), the events developed for his descendants not so favorable. A few years after the Europeans’ care, in 1964m, with the broad support of the population with African roots, an uprising broke out, which was reduced at least 17,000 lives, as well as the crown from the Sultan’s head. The first President of Zanzibar, Abade Karum, has entered into an agreement after a couple of months later, already a couple of months, who has recently acquired freedom of Tangany. – On the union in one state. So the map appeared Tanzania.
. What is not for everyone, I must say, it was. Own item is far from every resident of Zanzibar, one of the poorest countries of the world, where the average annual income is $ 250 per person, and children are born so much that 45 percent of the population is under 16. Local prospects for future foggy. Just once go through the quarter called NG’ambo ("Other side"), which occupies in Zanzibar City five times more space than tourists Stone Town visited to draw up the most impossible impression: instead "coral" Chambers – primitive hut made of concrete blocks and smashing clay mazanas. In the sand and dirt on the road part of the leg sinking to the ankle, windows with a glass or at least a grid for protection against malarious mosquitoes (malaria still – the most common cause of deaths on the islands) in the afternoon you will not find fire. Single jeeps of high officials and other secured people occasionally flashed in this setting, as if visions from another world.
Where did you come from and where there was a former well-being, who was so famous for Zanzibar in the past? After all, a hundred years ago, and even less, he was considered literally the gold archipelago, the financial center of the entire Indookean region.
To the first question answer is not difficult. Ryrhard Kapushinsky, an outstanding Polish reporter who has worked for many years in Africa, called Zanzibar "Cursed island". Here flourished and distributed from here his tentacles in the world of the slave trade. The dealers of the Arabs brought the captives caught in the depths in depths to expose them in local markets, and then, immersing the ships, sent to buyers: to the Middle East and to America. It is believed that only for the second half of the XIX century went here "With hammer" 600,000 nonstalls. And this is not counting those who died on the road from thirst, fever and deprivation … Today, this fishery went down in history – the Christian Cathedral was built on the site of the slave trade in Stone Town. Dtomnov, preserved under his foundation, and now remind of atrocities of that time.
Lost Zanzibar in the last century, its positions and in other, less brutal spheres of trade. Courts, seed from India or Indonesia with a load of spices, stopped needing to stop at Zanzibar. African gold today is also shipped to Europe and North America others – often no less dark – ways. Only a monopoly on the carnation remains. If it were necessary to choose a special emblem for the archipelago, then besides Dhau, traditional sailing boat everywhere, this plant would be the first in the list. He was brought to Zanzibar almost 200 years ago from the homeland of spices, Molukky Islands, and very soon it came to the first place among all local crops, bypassing "volume" Growing Pepper, Cinnamon, Basil, Cocoa. So today it brings half of the poor revenues of the state.
Aromatic carnation, Syzygium Aromaticum – the same flower with it has nothing in common – it grows on uniform medium height trees, which are completely covered with island valleys: because of the air of Zanzibar is filled with fragrance, especially after harvesting: non-painted floral buds, which make up a familiar to all spice, dried before each hut, and often right under the legs, on the streets. The lion’s share goes to export, and the rest is on the oil conversion factory. "Of course, you can visit our factory! Now I will find you!". Greetings to us the main person in small production in the village of Chuck-Chuck. It turned out that he studied in Moscow at that time when Tanzania decided "Try socialism". Economic course went away, warm feelings remained.
However, recently the archipelago has another profitable article – tourism. Only over the past ten years the number of vacationers has increased several times. On the one hand, for the country it is, of course, well: workplaces are created, including – before it was a business unheard – for women. In addition, travel companies vigorously support a variety of public environmental projects: on wastewater purification, to curb poaching – this is because of their interests. Finally, the influx of foreigners contributes to the expansion of the Zanzibarsky horizon: Festivals of film and music are established (it is appropriate to remember that the soloist of the Queen group Freddie Mercury was born on Zanzibar in the family of Indian origin. His real name is Farmer Bulsar, but "thematic" Cafe on the Stone Town Embankment elected much more famous pseudonym for his sign: "Mercury’s").
But there is a medal, as they say, and the reverse side: the behavior of increasingly numerous guests does not always correspond to the strict Muslim morality. It is necessary to remind about it even legally: for example, in 2005, a law prohibiting kissing on the street was adopted on Zanzibar. But it does not help: recently in Stone Town took off several establishments, where alcohol spilled. Jealous of the antiques and purity of the morals do not drell.
Among the many islands of the archipelago are two large, main: Pemba and Unguja. Unguja (it is sometimes called the island of Zanzibar with the capital in Zanzibar City) – this is a cultural and political center, it is more urbanized, the whole business life of the archipelago proceeds here. Pembus also nicknamed in the Middle Ages "Green garden" – Such she remained and today: rural and slightly provincial.
In general, it is better "Preserved". For example, I was misali, a very small island at the coast of pexs. He is deserted, but is of great importance for all Zanzibar. Waters around Misali are especially rich in fish, this is a real natural fisheries, which provides ecosystems of coral reefs and mangrove thickets. Fishermen from different villages pexes and even Unguji readily spend on several days to get here. Finally, this block of sushi is sacred: Local MGGAN, Shaman-Lekari, come here to collect healing herbs and bring victims to the spirits of Smetani, who are inhabited, as it is believed in numerous caves.
In the mid-1990s, the autonomous government of Zanzibar decided to pass a meal for rent a foreign investor for the construction of a hotel complex. But the tempting project was never destined to come. First, the village communities rebelled – the prospect of the arrival of rich, but uninvited guests could not cause enthusiasm among the traditionalist population, and for the fate of spirits fear. And soon the protest connected some international organizations, alarmed by the threat of destruction of unique coral "Infrastructure".
As a result, it happened impossible: the business plan was canceled. Moreover, during "Antigelty" The campaign was born MICA, the Association of Protection of the Island of Misali (Misali Island Conservation Association), which invented a completely new approach to solving environmental issues on Zanzibar.
Cases of nature in these places and without hotels were sensible. That fish that feeds almost the entire archipelago has become significantly less in the mid-1990s – in particular, due to the fact that local steel more often use special minor networks as well "good old" dynamite. At the same time, fishermen would seem to understand: pulling out today from the water twice or three times "biomass", In a long term, they lead a subpople under themselves.
In this situation, MICA has established a special protective zone around Misali. In the center of her fishing is now completely prohibited. In other sectors, it is strictly observed for the amount and quality of the gear, and the production quota is limited to an acceptable number for ecosystem.
Of course, from the very beginning there was a lot of people who wanted to circumvent the rules of the Marine Reserve. And effectively protecting his clocks appeared impossible. And then the Association "Made a move Kone": attracted to the fight for wildlife the authority of Islam.
In a brochure, a common MICA among imams, who are taught in rural schools, as many as 37 Sur Koran are attracted to explanation – why the environment should be preserved. There is detailed about the responsibility of a person for this Allah planet. "Environmental good news" spread and during Friday prayer, and in general, with each convenient case in rustic meetings, which all local politics issues are solved in Suakhilsk culture.
Success did not make himself wait.
No corals – no fish!
In the school class, located in the middle of the village of NDO on Fundo Island, unbearably stuffy, although the building is open from all sides and windows on the windows, naturally, no. All parties, benches and window sills are closed with kids in neglected syneblem forms. Responsible for education Officer MICA, Mbark Mousse Omar, invited us to the lesson of Islamic ecetition.
Boys and girls closely monitor how video recorder and TV are connected to the generator. There is no electricity or water supply on Fundo, therefore the very appearance of equipment – Sensation.
"Everything is in the Quran – Mbarka is beginning to be a classic formula – and, of course, it is written about how we treat nature". Then he writes Arabic letters one of the seur on the board: it is talking about what people committed "Bad Acts" on earth and under water and that they will now have to feel the results of the deed.
The guys easily read this text – from an early age, even the Latin alphabet and the Latin alphabet, who today enjoys Suahili, and "sacred" Arab.
Next, Mbaruk talks about the fact that creation is one and indivisibly and cannot be unpunished from it "pull out" Not a single detail, and about equilibrium, Misana, which should be maintained between all living beings. All this is accompanied by the instructive pampers of the underwater world on the screen, which in the class cause undisguised delight. "If it takes care of all this, then the ocean will still feed your grandchildren and grandchildren of your grandchildren. Destroy corals – the same thing that dump bombs on their mango trees. Who of you would do it?" And moving to English, already for us, guests, he sums up with a smile: "NO TREE – NO MOGO; No Coral – NO Fish. "
Having finished lesson, Mbarkov calls everyone for a walk. Since the hour came, we go around the beach. Red sand reflects the dazzling light of the midday sun. At each step, dozens of tiny crabs run out in different directions to jump into it again. To meet us already wanda women who gathered from the edge of the water what she left, retreating. "Catch" It is placed in the buckets, which they carry on the African custom on their heads, but at our request, the vessels are descended and exhibited for review. In them – both octopuses for which waves of different colors run, and "Porcelain" shells and dozen coral fish that did not have time for the drowning sea. Especially from all this diverse and peculiar wealth of the face of the body. Angular, similar to the perfect form. Creation of tiny fins and solid inner shells, extremely touching, but little similar to a living being. "Tropical Sardin, swallowing a cans", – Male notices our accompanied.
In general, the water area between Pepper, Unguja and the continent is among the most biologically saturated areas of all Oceans of the planet. Only near Fundo and Misali live 40 types of corals and over 250 species of fish. In the Pembal Channel, the depth of which reaches 2,000 meters, and large guests are found regularly: sharks, marliners, dolphins, whales.
Sand, sun, water, fertility – where else you know how to teach children "live and give live another"? There are some biotopes in the world, such a epithet "Paradise". On the way to a specially protected beach, where rare sea turtles once in the year of the lunar at night, the eggs are laying, Mbarka tells the story in such a spirit. "Long ago one famous saint named Hatra came here. He asked fishermen to give him a rug for prayers, because I wanted to fulfill my holy duty. But no carpet has never been. Then Hutra dropped his knees right on his bare land, saying that all this island is similar to a prayer rug, and even the edge of it is accurately directed to Mecca. So the island acquired its name: "I melt Msala", What means "like a prayer rug", Misali".
This legend was still told to us more than once, and in different versions and under different circumstances. In fact, the diversity of biological species, cultural and historical influences makes the entire archipelago look like a skoloty multicolor carpet. So he will be, if, of course, future tourists are not "flooded". As for the local, then there is a lot of things so that they caught the Sanzibarsky Islands to the Spring and their unique, there are no more wealth in the world anywhere else.