Underground Palace (Dinlin) –
– The tomb of Emperor Wanley
Dinlin’s underground palace – this is one of the thirteen certombants of the emperors of the Ming dynasty. It belongs to the thirteenth to the ruler of this dynasty – Wanley’s emperor. The funeral complex of the Ming dynasty is located in the north of Beijing 40 kilometers, and it is conveniently located in the middle of the path from the city to the Great Wall. It is on this geographical reason that this place is often visited by tourists.
Officially, this tomb is called "Dinlin", and the name "Underground Palace" has been gained behind it in the twentieth century. According to the most common version, it began to be called that when they realized that in the outlines she resembles a forbidden city. Of course, some similarities can be found, but, in our opinion, it is not obvious.
From the Chinese language "Dean Lin" translates as a "tomb of stability". There is irony in it, because it was precisely this burial that the archaeologists were excavated by.
Impression of tourists about visiting the underground Palace Danlin
We will not hide that the main sense that tourists experience is disappointment. Many complain that it is a dark and gray place. But it is logical, because it is a crypt! Such a place can not be cheerful by definition. Although, maybe. Near the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuandi found not only 8,000 clay soldiers – terracotta army, but also clay figures of circus and musicians in full size.
In the reasoning of tourists there are common sense. Of course, the body of the ruler cannot look inside, the artifacts are also exported, and few objects remained in the tomb. But this situation is observed in all the graves of antiquity opened by archaeologists.
But many burials without subjects and sarcophagus look very interesting. If you traveled to the great Egyptian pyramids and went inside the pyramid of Heops, then saw a stunning gallery that leads to the burial chamber. In the pink pyramid, the funeral cameras have a stepped form of the ceiling, and there are three there. In the valley of the tomb of the tomb much more modest Chinese, but all the walls are covered with plaster with paintings, remember at least the tomb of Tutankhamon. These are stories from the life of Pharaohs and excerpts from the book of the Dead.
In China, in the underground palace, the walls are completely empty, and there is nothing to look inside. Going inside, tourists expect to see something stunning, but there are only naked gray walls, a few vessels and stone plates, a simple throne and copies of coffins that look like simple red boxes.
The groundside of Dunral complex also does not make a strong impression, because it was completely destroyed during the fall of the Ming dynasty and the peasant uprising of 1644.
Of all these factors are not born not a very good impression in the minds of tourists about this attraction. Although, if you have adequate expectations in advance, it is probably the impression will be better. Read this page further, and we will tell about everything.
How to get and getting time
What’s the cover charge
Who is buried here
If you read tourist booklets and the Internet, then there are several names. On some pages on the Internet, we even met the name of the Third Emperor Junle, which is a rough mistake. We are more common two names – Wanley and Zhu Jzyn. And both are true.
Emperors China had several names. The first is at birth, in our case, Zhu Jzyun. Second – Temple, used with ceremonies, from our character Shenjung, and a posthumous name, for him Xian Juandy.
But, there is another name that is not name at all. In the historical literature in Russia, he is called the motto, for example: "Emperor Zhu Jzyun, who ruled under the motto Wanley".
In fact, this is not a motto, but the name of the era. Many ancient peoples did not consider the year figures from a certain moment, as we do now – we use dates from the Nativity of Christ. They considered the epochs and said: "It happened in the fourth year Wanley’s era".
Every new emperor, going to the throne, announced a new era and called her in his own way. The emperor could declare a new era when he wanted, and during the reign of some rulers of the epoch two, three or more times. Under the emperor, di from the Han dynasty there were 11.
The era began not since the coronation of the monarch, and not since the announcement of the era. She began on the first day of the first month of next year on the lunar calendar. This is logical, since the system described by us served for the summer. By the way, some emperors simply did not live up to the beginning of their era. So happened to the son of Wanley, he ruled only a month, and his era of Taichan (translated as "great prosperity") and did not come.
All emperors of the Ming dynasty declared an era once in their lives in reassuring, except for one case. It was the emperor Zhu Zyzhen, who was captured by Mongols. He spent in captivity of 8 years and returned. Therefore, there were two epochs in his rule.
Our Hero Zhu Jüsun proclaimed the era called Wanley, and now it is called both of these names. Vanley name used more often. Russian tourists love to call him "Vanya Lee".
A little about the emperor Zhu Jzyun (Wanley)
Zhu Jzyun was born in 1563. He was the third son of the 12th emperor dynasty Min Zhu Tsaikhou (Longcin). Both of his older brothers died at an early age and before the death of the father did not live. In 1572 at the age of 9 years he became an emperor.
Of course, he could not rule on his own age, and the first 10 years of his regent was the nobleman Zan Zhukhen. The young emperor studied and compiled the art of management.
In 19 years, Zhu Zhukhen died and Zhu Jzyun (Wanley) began independently. The first 18 years of reign were successful. Wanley successfully reflected the next invasion of Mongols, suppressed uprising in the country and helped the neighboring Korea reflect the aggression of Japan. Koreans still remember him and worship.
In the 1600th year there was a fracture in his board. He stopped doing the duties of the emperor and engage in public affairs. In China, in those days, the emperor was "tied" a lot. He did not appoint generals and ministers, did not publish a timely necessary laws. The country management system was paralyzed.
About the reasons for such an act of historians argue in our days. One version was nominated in 1997 in the book released by the Ministry of Public Security of the PRC (Analog KGB or FSB). It says that in the body of Wanley, traces of morphine were found, which indicates a drug dependence on opium.
Such version is just in the spirit of the Communist Party of the PRC. She fits well into the communist ideology. Tirant oppresses the people and smokes opium. But this version is not very believable. Opium smoking at the time in China was not common. In addition, no one saw the results of this body examination of the ruler.
Most historians support another version. Wanley really wanted to see the heir of his Third Son Zhu Chanswing, he considered him a more worthy throne. But nominally prince was the eldest son Zhu Chhanlo.
Higher officials and to know were against the choice of emperor Wanley. The emperor chose the shape of a passive protest. Zhu Chhanlo eventually became the emperor, but the rules of one month and was poisoned.
From 1600 to 1620, Wanley and rules in full. In 1916, an important event was happening for Russia. The first official representatives of our country arrived in Beijing and asked the audience at the court. Group of Cossacks led Ivan Petlin.
They were denied, and our embassy was sent back, handing the Cossacks a document on Chinese hieroglyphs. To read it in his homeland no one could. Remember the everyday expression "Chinese grades"? Here it comes from here.
In the 1620th year, Emperor Zhu Jüny (Wanley) died.
A little about the history of this tomb
In the tomb put the emperor Wanley and two of his wives. In some articles on the Internet, they write different non-residents that wives were killed with him that his concubine was buried with him. On one site even gives a digit 3000 concubines!
Of course, 3000 tel would not fit there, it is understandable to everyone who saw the tomb at least in the photos. Theoretically, it would be placed, but then it would not be a tomb, but a tin can with sprats.
Both empress died before the emperor. His first wife died in 1611, and the second in 1620 shortly before Wanley. The cause of death in both cases has become a disease.
At that time it was not customary to bury the concubines alive. This custom was recognized by barbaric and canceled 150 years before the death of Wanley. However, vacant places for concubines in the tomb is, and it was assumed that they were to "hide" a little later.
The emperor took care of his tomb in advance, it was built from 1584 to 1590. This is the third tomb in the valley. The total area of the complex is 180,000 square meters.
The tomb was sealed, the entrances were closed, the tunnel was buried.
In this part of our article we want to dwell in detail at the level of damage to the graves of the emperors of China. As we said, Dinlin is the only opened burial in the valley. I wonder why? Why tomb did not charge in troubled times, as it happened in the valley of the kings in Egypt?
More often than others you will meet the version that the Chinese are very cultural people, and they protect their heritage, or a story about their superstitiousness and fear of curse.
The reason is likely in another. The burial of the emperor of China was reserved at times stronger than the tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh.
The tomb was at a depth of 20-40 meters. That is, potential robbers needed to dig to the depth of a 10-storey building. Agree, the task is not simple.
The second problem is to swell the tunnel, it was necessary to get somewhere in the entrance area in the mausoleum. There was not a lot of chances for such luck. It’s lucky, if you get at least a tomb, but you can generally miss.
Even if the robbers found the entrance, they would be waiting for a massive marble door, which does not open outside. What to do with it? Is that blowing, but then only gunpowder was available from the explosive, and the gunner "will not take". The first door there is still the second.
In 1644, the Ming dynasty was overthrown during the peasant uprising. All the buildings of the burial complexes in the valley were burned by the rebels. Nobody touched underground mausoleums, which is logical, so much time on their autopsy was simply not.
Archaeological excavations began in 1956, and the Chinese archaeologists have killed a year until they got to the inner halls. They used modern techniques, and imagine how hard it would have to the thieves of the past.
In 1957, the tomb was opened, and about 3000 artifacts were found inside. Such a fantastic "catch" could only compare with the autopsy of the Tutankhamon’s tomb. Unfortunately, most of the subjects were lost as a result of inept actions of archaeologists and imperfect technologies.
In 1959, a museum was founded here, in which almost all "surviving" artifacts are stored. Such a sad exodus convinced China’s leadership no longer conduct an autopsy of the imperial tomb. Although, the tomb of princes, officials and concubines Chinese archaeologists open constantly and with great pleasure.
During the cultural revolution, terrible events occurred here. Activists of the Communist Movement broke into the museum and pulled out the body of the emperor Wanley and Empress. They publicly betrayed the body to the court, condemned and executed, that is, burned.
We will not comment on this incident, and leave this opportunity to specialists from the PKB named after Gannushkin and Kashchenko. They make a diagnosis of these activists.
What tourists look inside
All the tomb of emperors of the era min have the shape of a keyhole (a photo of the layout on the right). Rectangular part – these are ground buildings. This can be called a memorial temple. Here they prayed and brought victims.
The round part is the Kurgan, under which the underground mausoleum itself is located. Symbolism is obvious, the square is the symbol of the Earth, the circle is the symbol of the sky. Recall at least the form of buildings in the Temple of the sky in Beijing.
As we have already written, there are almost nothing left in the ground part. From the original buildings of the era Min now you can see only a large marble column at the entrance. Gate (see. Photos) were restored by the emperors of the next Qing dynasty. Several pavilions that previously stood here were not restored, only foundations remained from them.
At the end of the complex there is a stone pedestal and five sacrificial vessels, and it is also the brainchild of the rulers of Qing. At the entrance to Kurgan is the tower (see. Photo of pedestal, sacrificial vases and tower), also restored after the uprising.
Looking at these remnants of the former greatness, tourists descend down. Total inside five halls (see the scheme on the left). The first room on the way – an external hall. He is empty and there is nothing to look here.
Second hall (see. Photo) contains three thrones for each of the "inhabitants" of the tombs – one big throne for the emperor Wanley and two smaller sizes for the empress. They have vessels that were filled with sesame oil for lighting. The Chinese love to throw money to the thrones, they say that it brings good luck.
Two side halls (see. photo) empty, they were intended for concubines, but were used for storing burial objects. Recall that all artifacts have long been in museums.
And the last hall is called "Rear" (see. Photo). There were sarcophages that were now replaced by copies. They look like simple red boxes. One sarcophag of large size and two smaller. Live interest among tourists cause very little boxes.
Everyone is asked: "And who was buried in them? Really children?" Of course not. These boxes kept the most valuable objects made of jade, precious stones, gold and silver. By the way, the Chinese will also throw money to the coffins. There is a thought, maybe they are so struggling with the inflation of the Chinese yuan, sending surplus of the money supply to the afterlife?
We watched five of these halls and on the output, the inspection is over.
According to the results, it can be stated that the most interesting on this sight is a museum. We recommend visiting it on mandatory. Most of the artifacts from the Tomb Dinlin are stored there. Some can be viewed at the National Museum of China.
Not only artifacts are exhibited in the museum, but also the photos and personal belongings of archaeologists, here it is told about the history of excavations.
By the way, the leaders of the archaeological expedition shortly after the completion of the work were arrested and died in prison. Similar fate waited for many scientists from their research team.
Their fate suggests: "And maybe the curse of the emperors of China really exists?"
Have a successful visit to Dunlin and read our pages about China (Links below).