UNESCO World Heritage: Dome of Sultania
Recently, in the news there was a message that the UNESCO World Heritage List was made by another, 7th Monument to Iranian culture and art. This topic we decided to dedicate today’s program.
The 29th session of the UNESCO Committee on world heritage was held in the South African city of Durban. At this conference it was decided to make a number of monuments, including the famous Dome of the Sultania in the list of world cultural heritage. Zanzane to the west of Tehran. In total, this list includes more than 250 monuments of history and objects of nature in 129 countries of the world, including 6, and with the Dome of Sultania 7, in Iran. Iranian objects of cultural heritage are Palace Persepole or Takhte-Jamshid, Church of Chogazanbil, Tahme-Suleiman, Square of Hagia-Jahan in Isfagan, Palace Pasargad and Kremlin. BAM. Dome of the Sultania was added with him.
Making a diploma to the list of world cultural heritage involuntarily causes the question – and what is the difference between this architectural object, which attracts local and foreign tourists?
Sultania is the name of the Dynasty of the Mongolian rulers, by order of which this dome was erected at the beginning of the 14th century 37 km from the current G. Zanzhan in North-West Iran. In fact, this is the palace who chose his summer residence Mongolian ruler Argun Shah, and his successor in general moved there the capital of the state. This ruler was Sultan Muhammad Khodabanda, according to Oljilaito, by whose name Palace was named by the Dome of the Sultania. Sultania subsequently rummaged to a major city and rivalry in greatness with Baghdad and Cairir. In this city, and Oljyo himself was buried.
The amazing city of Sultania was erected by the decree of Oljito, brother and heir to Gazan-Khan, on the open and adorable Valley of the Sultania. Soon he was elected the capital of Mongol Shakhov Iran or Ilkhanov. Construction of the city Beginning 1305 and ended in 1313 g. The city had a rather large area, and the tomb of Oljito touched over the whole of the Sultania.
Next to the main palace complex was built a number of buildings less. Unfortunately, none has preserved. Houses in the Sultania, as in most old cities of Iran, had two parts, the exterior yard and internal chambers. The Mausoleum of the Sultan himself is a grand monument of culture inside the Kremlin and includes a mosque, a madrasa, hospital, a stall courtyard and several other buildings. Oljyito tomb is an octagonal building with a diameter of about 39 meters. She is crowned with a huge dome with eight minarets in the corners.
The architectural feature of this period is the use of undetented high-quality brick, which has reached its climax in the Dome of the Sultania. This dome is the highest brick tower in Iran and the third height in the world.
Another feature of the building is its magnificent facade and high internal chambers. The tomb is one of the largest internal interior in Iran, in the sense that its internal space is not interrupted by a single wall or column. Architects skillfully combined the complexity and elegance of the design with the simplicity of the project.
The chief architect of the building was Alisha, who had, apparently, a rather high position at the courtyard, since he was captured three times on the walls of the tomb. The total height of the diploma dome is 54 meters, its external surface is finished with a tile in bright colors, and each of the eight corners decorates the minaret of blue, so the dome itself looks like a gem in the rim. Several openings skip enough sunlight to illuminate almost the entire indoor space. For those who held here, the religious ceremonies or holidays men were located on the lower floor, and women on the upper terrace.
The inner surface is decorated with two ways: the lower part of the brick and the tile, and the second – molding plaster. A decorative golden brick is used in the walls, between which the tiles are alternate with the size of smaller with karamic letters.