USA: Alaska

Alaska (Alaska, Area 1.7 million kV. km – the largest state of the country) is located in the extreme north-west of the continent, outside the main territory of the United States, and is separated from the Canadian provinces of Yukon and British Columbia. In the West borders with Russia (on the Bering Strait), in the East and South – with Canada. In addition to the extensive main part, the staff includes a large number of island groups – Aleutian Islands (Middle, Kracia, Andreyanovsky and others.), Profit Islands and Alexander Archipelago, as well as many separate islands – Kadyak, St. Lawrence, St. Matvey, Small Diomid, Nunivak and others. The huge territory of Alaska is extremely diverse in both its own natural climatic and demographic conditions. In essence, the entire territory of the state is formed by the Northern Szř.), as well as numerous apparent and moraine plains, forming extensive spaces between mountain areas. The north of the Brooks Range lies a huge Arctic lowland, adjacent to the cold seas of Beaufort and Chukotka. Covered with tundra, swamps and arctic deserts, it is extremely poor inhabited, but has unique natural complexes, carefully protected by the state. Between the Brooks Ridge with His Mountain Forests (the most northern taiga on the planet, therefore 40% of the territory of this mountainous country is also protected) and the Alaskan ridge with its highest point of the region – Mak-Kinley Magni (Denali, 6194 m), lies an extensive sublime plateau (height 600-1200 m), smoothly descending to the West, to the prophetic lowland. There are also large massifs of forests, and subarctic empty, and swamps, and even mixed forests, unusual for so high latitudes. On the Pacific Coast climate Subarctic (in the north) and moderate (in the south), marine, the thick coniferous forests and meadows grow here. At the same time, there are even greater variety of natural complexes on the islands than in the mainland, and the most southern group of the Alexander archipelago group is famous for its luxurious coniferous and mixed forests, since the climate is noticeably warmer here than on the main territory of Alaska.

Alaska (from Aleutian "Alaeska" – "Big Western Earth"), which is often called "The last border" (The territory of the peninsula was bought on October 18, 1867 in Russia for $ 7 million), or "The ground of the midnight sun", It is considered unique in its capabilities of the tourist area. Possessing the widest set of natural complexes and the form of relief, a huge number of reserves and reserves, the picturesque mountains and volcanoes, deep fjords and extensive glaciers, rivers and islands, inhabited by the unique multinational community, permeated by ideals "Frontira" and "Golden fever", It serves as a real Mecca for fans of extreme tourism, fishing, hunting and other forms of outdoor activities. Its coastline is twice of the length of all the other states of the country put together, here, there are 3 million lakes, 3,000 rivers, 17 of the 20 highest US peaks, about 100 thousand of glaciers (however, their number markedly diminished in the last 10 years) and 15 national parks, natural monuments amount just defies account, and the number of nature reserves almost equal to or even exceeds the number of those in many countries.

The largest city in Alaska – Anchorage is both a popular tourist destination, commercial and transportation center of the state.

Around Anchorage also many interesting places – a special platform on the creek Ship Creek, which allows to watch going on spawning salmon (which has the status of historical sites), Coastal Reserve south of the city (you can see about 130 species of birds, especially waterfowl) associated dozens trail Chugach national park wildlife Center in Eagle River, Alaska historical village Eklutna (The oldest settlement in the region – the first mention of it are found already in 1650), with its the Village historical park, the Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas and the chapel carved in the Russian style, as well as nature reserves Lake Clark and Katmai at the base of peninsula Aleutian.

70 km south of Anchorage begins the most beautiful places of the peninsula Kenai. There are noteworthy ski resort Girdwood, National Park Kenai Fjords (Area 234 thousand. ha), Harding ice field measuring 80 by 48 kilometers, the magnificent Kachemak Bay State Park, famous salmon rivers Kenai Rashen and Kasilof River, unspoiled wilderness steep mountains and fjords Prince William Sound Sound (part of the Gulf of Alaska by west Kenai Peninsula) and "Emerald Island" Kodiak with its fantastic landscapes, the largest fishing fleet in the state museums and Baranova Alutik National Park Kodiak (covering two thirds of the island) and the vast population of the largest bears mainland.

The largest settlement Inner Alaska region and the second largest in the state, the city of Fairbanks (in Russian transcription – Fairbanks) located in the upper part of the Central Plateau, at the confluence of the Tanana and Chena Rivers (576 km north of Anchorage). This is the true Arctic – from mid-May to late July, the day lasts 20 hours, and the winter sun barely rises above the horizon.

Fairbanks literally from all sides surrounded by protected areas, which in this case are quite accessible to visitors. Especially famous in this regard the White Mountains mountain, Chen river valley, with its hot springs (a popular resort area), the famous Denali National Park (an area of ​​enormous fleet of 2.5 million hectares in the northern region close fit to the surrounding mountains Fairbanks), the ridge Brooks, with its reserves Noatak, Bering Land Bridge and the Kobuk Valley National Park.

At 322 km north-west of Fairbanks is a vast wilderness area of ​​the Arctic National Park (Gates-of-the-Arctic, an area of ​​3.4 million hectares), a visit to which we can recommend only serious tourists who are familiar with the complexities of such territories. Also, many visitors sent to the river surrounding the city in the hope to get some gold (many it really is possible, but most of the rides just to join the spirit "gold rush", thrown into the harsh edges of their ancestors). Original attraction of this area is the famous dredge Gold Dredge-Nambu-HLB, namyvshaya the period from 1928 to 1959, over 7.5 million ounces of gold (a National Historic portion and is best known in U.S. dredge).

Many people come to Fairbanks only to take part in extreme races on the famous dog sled considered an official sport of Alaska. the famous international race stands out among the many and the many annual events "Yukon search" (Yukon Quest International Sled Dog Race), held each February. Its track of a total length of about 1600 km is placed in the wildest places between Whitehors, the Yukon territory and Fairbenks, and the race is considered the most rigid (or cruel) competition of this kind in the world. However, at any time of the year in Alaska, you can make a simple voyage on dog sledding in the most interesting places of staff, together with the rest or study of local nature with acquaintance with this exotic and very interesting sport.

"Not the most affordable capital", as they call this city the Americans, Juneau is located in the south of Alaska, between the Strait of Gastineau-Channelview (Alexander Archipelago) and the slopes of the ridge Boundary. Indeed, this is the only state capital, to which no road is suitable – an unthinkable American concept phenomenon. Founded in the middle of the 19th century, the city was first called Harrisberg, then Rockwell, and only in 1881, miners who made up most of the local population, officially chose the modern name in honor of the gold killer Joe Juno. After the Sitka (the old capital of the state) lost its importance due to the cessation of whaling and reduce trade of furs, Juno became a new capital of Alaska (1906.) that, however, did not bring him wealth – the surrounding mines were quickly whined, and the city almost emptied. In 1974, residents of Alaska even wanted to transfer the capital to Anchorage (or rather – to his suburb of Willow), however, they decided that they were required for such "moving" Finance do not cost the benefit gained, and Juno has retained its status.

United States of Alaska

Juno, which is often called and "North San Francisco", It is considered one of the most picturesque cities of the United States, which, in general, and not surprisingly. From sushi, his panorama is emphasized by the snow peaks of Mount Juno (1090 m) and Mount Roberts, and from the West, the blue stripes of Gastina-Chennel, between which this strange settlement was fitted, considered to be one of the largest in the country (city area about 8030 kV. km), and one of the most randous (only 31 thousand lives here. human). Another poetic epithet, often applied to this city – "Gate glaciers". And indeed – a whole series of mountain peaks and valleys, covered with glaciers, the most famous of which – Mendencholl – lies in just 21 km from the city center. In the center of the city there was an excellent historical area with many buildings of the early 1900s, famous Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas (1894.), dozens of bars, shops and restaurants. Juno-Douglas City-Muizum is located in the old building of the Memorial Library (1951.) and contains a large collection of works of local artists, the exposition on the history of gold mining and other exhibitions in local history and culture. Also located in the city center, the Alaska Museum not only has a good historical collection (including in the Russian period in the history of the state), but also separate exhibitions dedicated to all four ethnic groups of indigenous people – Atapack, Aleutams, Innuitam and coast tribes, and Also a children’s department with exhibitions on the history of natural science and even a collection of parade costumes of all eras.

To the north-west of the center, the business district and the fast-growing residential area of ​​Mendencholl-Vley, or just ordered. West – famous for his scenery bay Auka and the sea terminal – the only one, except for the airport, means of communication between the state capital and the rest of the country. The strip of Marin Park is stretched along the bank – the best green zone and the scenic field of the city, to which the carefully restored old buildings of the Saint-Franklin Street area, filled with bars, shops and restaurants, and just 5 km south of the center lies the Museum of the Mining Industry (around Cities, and often right on its territory, there is a huge number of old mining mines for gold and copper). Nearby are a very modest capitol, which is more like a high school than the state of the state government, the Devis-Log Cabin building, which houses a small historical museum. Southeast, on the other shore Gastina-Chennel, lies the sleepy town of Douglas, who was once the main city of the region, and now serves as a starting point for numerous mountain resorts.

Around Juno actually a lot of both first-class resort areas and relictic areas. Business card of the region – 19-kilometer Glacier Mendenhall and its tourist center (2.4 km from the edge of the glacier) with exhibitions and popular science expositions. In the light of the rapidly cutting glaciers of the state, this zone has acquired a special popularity as the area of ​​hiking, ski and horse hikes. Near the most popular tourist trail – Perseverans, passing through Mount Juno, Granite Creek and Glory How (part of the trail is destroyed by a landslide in 1996 and now it is actively overpowering). Also good routes on the slopes Mount Roberts, Mount Bradley and Gastline Peak, as well as Trails Dan Moller-Trail and Tretell-Ditch Trail to Douglas Island. The Gleisher Bay National Park is extremely popular with the largest concentration of ice languages ​​on the continent (16 mountain glaciers are going here in one extensive bay) and an amazingly rich marine life, Auke Bay (19 km northwest from the city center) with the same lake and Auke-Bay marine laboratory, West-Gleisher-Trail tourist trail and Mount Mak-Ginnis, Glacier Lake Mendencholl (Popular Platalide of Kayakers), as well as a small island of Saint Teresa (37 km from the city center on Gleisher-Highway) with Catholic chapel (1937 g.).

24 km south-east of Juno lies the virgin island of Admiralty, famous for many deer, colorful village of Angun, inhabited by Indians-Tlingit, "Silver stream" Green Creek, as well as a sea fleet Oliver Inlet (227 hectares). Nearby Seymour-Chennel is known for his population of Orlov (one of the largest on the mainland) and fangeries of marine mammals. And between Lynn-Canel and Bernes-Bay, the State Park Point Bridget (1130 hectares) with a luxurious coastline and excellent fishing conditions.

Southeast Juno stretches the strip of fjords, mountains, glaciers, thousands of islands and ancient forests, framing the so-called inner pass (Insayd-Passage – a series of shipping strands between the Islands of the Alexander Archipelago). Mass survived here "ethnic" Cities – Ketchikan With an overwhelmingly Indian population, an old mining town Wrangel With huge (5.3 million hectares) nearby Wrangel-Saint-Elias and Nizin Canyon, a few elitary town Haynes (Very popular place of leisure of aging millionaires), as well as the old town of gold miners Skagia With his pompous buildings and the atmosphere of the Wildest. The territory of the National Historic Park Totem-Byte begins 3 km from Ketchikina with an extensive assembly of totems and traditional tribal houses, the National Forest Reserve Tongass and the National Natural Monument of Mysti Fjords – a unique place for its beauty, where the lanes of the fog, the misty of paintings, caused by the collision of heterogeneous air masses.

Special attention deserves the old capital of the state Sitka With a clearly Russian entourage, the Cathedral of St. Michael (an accurate copy of the Orthodox Russian Cathedral of the XIX century, which burned down the duck in 1966), Sheldon Jackson’s museum (first-class collection of people’s and applied products) and national historical park (43 hectares). Many of the surrounding islands and cities still wear Russian names, and the surrounding almost all city of 70-kilometer network of hiking and horse trail covers many interesting natural and historical sites.

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