Unknown Terra Australis: Antarctica Story
In 1513, the Ottoman Admiral and Cartographer Piri-Reis on several pieces of the Skin Gassels drew a map of the world to which the outline was drawn not only by both Americas, but also Antarctica. After sailing, Columbus passed only 20 years, and, of course, the results of this expedition could not serve as a primary source for Piri-Risa. However, admiral himself recognized that he compiled his card from several more ancient cards stored in the deceased Alexandria library. The biggest mystery of this map is not even in that it is depicted with an accuracy of the slightest details of the Antarctica coast, and in the fact that it is shown in this way, as if there is no kilometer ice. Modern science only in the 1950s found out the outlines of the treate part of this mainland. It turns out that the navigaters of antiquity saw Antarctica without ice?
There is a theory according to which approximately 10,000 -20,000 years there is a displacement of the earth’s crust relative to poles. The mass of ice on the polar caps of our planet exceeds the critical mark, and the entire lithosphere of the Earth, having lost the balance, begins to slide along the surface of the soft inner layers. Ice fields turn out to be in warmer places and slowly melted, and on the poles at that time new ice-bearing areas are formed. Perhaps, to us, some miracle reached the map of the previous civilization, which lived even before Antarctica was on the southern pole of our planet ..
Modern science only in the 1950s found out the outlines of the treate part of this mainland. It turns out that antiquity navigators saw Antarctica without ice?
You can read more about this in the books of Charles Hepguda "Maps of the Ancient Marine Kings" and "Switched Earth Bark: the key to some basic problems of earthly sciences". Preface to the latter, by the way, wrote Albert Einstein himself! (However, the rest of the scientific world of the author did not support the rest, and the theory of shifting poles is still so listed in the science of marginal.)
Currently, the Piri-Risa card is kept in the library of the Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and its fragments were depicted in Turkish banknotes in 1999-2009.
TERRA AUSTRALIS INCOGNITA Map. 1618 year
Geographers of the ancient world also knew about the existence of unknown southern land. They called her Terra Australis Incognita. The term "Antarctica", as the opposite word "Arctic", first used in the second century. NS. Ancient Greek scientist Marin Tirsky, founder of mathematical cartography, the one that put in geography the concept of latitude and longitude.
James Cook and Resolute
To achieve the shores of this land, Diash, and Magellan, and Tasman, but targeted searches of Antarctica began only in the XVII century. First, the coming approaches to it were studied. So, in 1675, the English de la Rosh was opened by the island of South Georgia, the French Jean-Baptiste Buve and Yves Joseph Kerglen in 1739 and in 1772, respectively, opened the islands on the approach to Antarctica, named after their names, but they could not go further because ice.
Modern researchers calculated that Cook did not reach the shore of Antarctica only 75 miles
Further, James Cook has advanced to the south during his swims from 1772-1775. At the Slut "Resolvera" he sailed around Antarctica, several times crossed the southern polar circle, reaching a record mark of 71 ° 15 ‘. NS., and made such a resolution: "Earths that may be in the south will never be investigated, as this country is doomed to nature for eternal cold". Modern researchers calculated that Cook did not reach the shore of Antarctica only 75 miles.
Mikhail Lazarev and Faddey Bellinshausen
It is believed that Antarctica has opened 16 (28) January 1820, the Russian expedition on the Military Sluts "Vostok" and "Mirny" under the command of Faddey Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev. On this day, they stuck to the shelf glacier of the queen of the queen mod at point 69 ° 21 ’28" NS. NS. and 2 ° 14 ’50" Z. D. and saw in the binoculars "Coast of Antarctica" (now this place is called the coast of Princess Marta, the shelf Glacier Bellinshausen descends into the ocean). This is what Bellengausen himself wrote about this: "I call the acquisition by the shore because the remoteness of the other end to the south disappeared over the limit of our view … A sudden color change on the sea surface suggests that the shore is extensive.
But what is surprising: the British believe that Antarctica was opened by Edward Brancesfield in January 1820, the Americans – that Nathaniel Palmer did in November 1820, and the Dutch was that their countryman Dirk Gerritz back in 1599! Non-one: none of them on the coast of Antarctica did not leave, they were all seen "Earth" somewhere, far from the horizon.
Already in our time on the coast of Antarctica, the remains of the Galeon XVI-XVII centuries have repeatedly found, but hardly these ships came there with their own. Most likely, they were thrown by storms. But the first case when the leg of a person stepped on the land of Antarctica, recorded documented. It was a leg of John Davis, American Kitoboy. And it happened on February 7, 1821. Cecilia’s Slut, whose captain was Davis, went to the bay of Hughes in the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula, and for several days his team rested on the shore.