Uzbekistan. Great builders wonders
Great Silk Path. Trans-Asian Highway, who has played once a leading role in the interaction of the cultures of the East and West. Surprisingly, in the new millennium it seems to be a revival. More and more people seek to go through the roads of his caravans and touch the history of the greatest cultural phenomenon of humanity. And on this path, Uzbekistan appears a peculiar knot, where artistic cultures in the Asian continent were crossed. Values left to us by His masters, incommensnim: Golden Vlasts Amudarya, Murals Varatshi, Silver Samanids, Ceramics Afrasiaba, Medieval miniature, Jewelery products Bukhara. They can be seen in the Louvre and Hermitage, London and Museums of Berlin. However, they do not give the ideas about the main treasures of the Uzbek people – its world-famous architectural monuments. Their number is huge, and they are scattered throughout the territory of modern Uzbekistan. But, no doubt, the best concentrated in peculiar cities of relics, open-air museums. Who did not hear about them – Khiva, Shahrisabz, Samarkand and, of course.
Ancient belief claims: all Muslim cities from the sky descends the gracious light, and only over Bukhar, he rises to the sky. In this "Test Islam" It is exuded by shrines and the earth itself. The amazing city, which from the moment of origin and until 1920 did not go beyond the fortress wall built in the XVI century. Another hundred years ago, several dozen of its inhabitants accounted for more than two hundred (!) The mosques, his madrasas numbered ten thousand students, and at the famous bazaars it was possible to buy everything – from Indian Kyubi, multi-stage Tula samovarov, Maltese chalee and Chinese porcelain to heavy swords of the Crusaders. And the bazaars are so famous in Central Asia.
The city, founded in the first centuries BC. NS., I saw two tens of invaders for my story, and burned and burned, but every time he was rejected in the same place. Therefore, going to the old Bukhara is literally in ancient civilizations, and even a little strale dust is involuntarily represented by the remains of someone’s distant housing and lives. Feeling, I must say unforgettable. In general, the preserved architectural appearance of Bukhara acquired in the XVIXVII centuries, being the capital of Sheebanids and Ashtarkhanids. His manifold admires: caravansera and shopping buildings, mosques and madrasa, baths and houses, fortress walls and gates, large ensembles, individual tips – just not count. Well, at least the pearl of the city: a small mausoleum of the samanid dynasty. One of the earliest in the East, he noted his millennium recently.
Massive square slightly inclined walls are crowned with a modest low dome and, despite small sizes, it looks very monumental – the secret in the exceptional proportionality of all elements of the tomb. And on a sunny day, at a distance, the mausoleum is strangely resembles a weightless woven or cut out of a golden tree. Near the eyes climb on the forehead – outside and inside the facing masonry from ordinary burned brick! And the ratio and alternation of these bricks, laid horizontally, vertically, at an angle, rugged patterns, dugged in the form of disks and sockets, creates a curious game of light and shadow.
In such a technique, the facing of the architectural symbol Bukhara is a great minaret of Kalyan. Built in 1127, he is considered one of the highest in Asia. Builders deep into the ground lowered his monolithic foundation and dramatically narrowed the vertex, giving the unique strength of the whole design. If from the foot of the minaret, look up onto its sixteen surfactant lantern – the look runs on an infinitely diverse pattern of bricks, and it seems that the tower there is no end at all. These are dozens of ornamental belts, none of which is repeated, play with the eye in a cunning game of decor and proportions. And try climbing the circular gallery of the minaret lantern, if you master the screw staircase with a deadly high steps and in darkness, barely scattered rare enders, do not get the neck. In front of you in a semiring remnants of the fortress walls of the street and monuments of the old Bukhara, on the modern city, and even further, the border of the Sky scaled by the Sun of the Eternal Marenevo – so breathe sands.
Look at the city. By the way, many years ago the occupation was unsafe: many Muzzins Bukhara blinded, so that they did not see "secrets terraces and yards". But look at the city. Under you the most famous area of POI kalyan, formed by the Great Minaret, Kalyan Mosque (XVI in.) and Madrasa Miriarab (1536 g.). Below, she looks majestically – how many harmony and thoughtful freedom in its layout, in the relationship and the ratio of architectural masses. And how amazing the fantastic life of her rolling shadows.
Maybe you will be lucky, and immediately flashes before the eyes of a wide stroke Lyabi House – the center of the following beauty of the ensemble Bukhara. Howes is a pond, and in the forever suffering from lack of water, the ponds were the focus of public life. Here is a laby house, rectangular with cut corners, framed by three monumental mosques of the XVI-XVII centuries., I once saw the gray-breeds already Moulo Bach (students), ending their fifteen-year-old course of theology; and bypassing Rais-Us-Sharia, the guardian measures, weight and length in the bazaars; and violators of the ban on night walking in the city, which have just left for punishment – cleaning furnaces of urban baths; and maybe I heard even the contagious laugh of Khoju Nasreddin. Slightly melancholic, very beautiful place, especially in autumn.
But it is best to descend from the great minaret, – take care of the legs, take the guide and go on a travel in the city . No, go without a guide, and try to surrender to the will of surprise and. Just get lost in Bukhara. And there – will go to the arch, the medieval fortress and the residence of all the rulers, do not miss the unique mosque of Magoka-Attari, you will admire the carved irrigation terracotta of the Mausoleum of Buyan-Kula Khan, meet an amazing journey of the domes of the Toki-Zargaron market. Be sure to go to Khanaku Faizabad, under its incredible dome on mesh sails, and also, and also, and also. In Bukhara one hundred forty architectural monuments! Burst time and patience. But at least wait for the night from one of the Howes: You will see the incredible stars of Central Asia, their reflection in the pond – the earth and the sky will suddenly close. "And, it seems, a star ball will be closed by the world, and you will be called on the road" – and maybe.
. in brilliant Samarkand
One of the oldest cities in the world, he was Marakand in the middle of 1 millennia BC. NS., Legendary Sughd Afrasiaba, Unhappy Samarkand Time Genghis Khan. And became a great Samarkand "Iron Chrome" Timura – "A shared universe", illiterate patron of science, connoisseur medicine, theology and chess. And his grandson of Ulugbek – Book, Mathematics, Astronomer and Poet.
Opponent of Damascus, Cairo, Baghdad, it is at Timurida that SAMARKAND comes into the time of unprecedented heyday. In the XIV-XV centuries. Citadel and fortress walls are erected, big streets make their way, the grandiose architectural ensembles arise and there is a special monumental style of the city. Around the perimeter he is rejected by a ring of thirteen giant parks and gardens, where, according to the stories of contemporaries, "Lost once a horse was looking for half a year". And this period is most interesting in the architectural chronicle of Samarkand.
On the southern slope of the Aphrasiab settlement, along a narrow track, descending along the wicking of his fortress wall, a unique necropolis stretched out: Sinda Shahi, a cemetery-street, formed by the mosques and mausoleums of the XI-XV centuries. It is said that from the air the ensemble reminds stretching on the slope the procession of people in blue caps, or a blue necklace abandoned in the sun burned herb, and when you wander among its diverse, but surprisingly harmonious, commensurate man of mausoleums, sparkling blue and blue walls, for which, Overtaking solar bunnies, run gold, white, green mosaic patterns, though you forget that before you tombs, and it seems – around the country of carved toys.
Even further to the city center, with a new rise in the mountain above the head of a giant silhouette grow the remains of the Bibi Han mosque, whose dome compared with the heavenly arch, and the arch of the portal with the Milky. By order of Timur, she was erected as the largest building of the East. In mud and blood, the prisoners of different countries created this legend of Asia. The despot plan was able to, but the hurry and the exorbitant dimensions of the three halls led to inevitable collaps in the lifetime of the ruler, the rest ended the earthquake. It is a pity: the greatness and wealth of the mosque, each spin of which was decorated with sets of glazed bricks, Maitolike, mosaic, thread on mramor, painting and gilding, was fabulous. Even our eye, the spoiled scale of modern cities, the remains of Bibi Hagon seem ambitious, and the thought is unwittingly? And the conqueror himself found peace in one of the best tasks of the East, "Tomb of the Lord" – Mausoleum Timurid Gur-Emir. They published it looks like a blue tulip, tightly prevailing his petals. An elongated ribbed dome of the Mausoleum, like an unsecured bud, slightly hangs over a strong stem of the drum posed on a polyhedron. And the whole mausoleum is an example of harmony and proportionality, which occurs only in nature. Wall panels inside the tomb are scored from yellow-green onyx-shaped marble and paint paint painted with gold. The ornament and the ratio of painting are thought out to create the effect of flickering and airiness of bribing space. And much lower, under the floor, there is a crypt with the burials of Temur teacher, the ruler itself and his descendants. When in June 1941 opened the grave of the great conqueror, several old Uzbeks came to the academic operation itself and asked to leave her alone, showed old books, convinced not to disturb the buried spirit. Their stories laughed. And when they moved to the heavyly trimmed by Onyx, the slab, from the simple wooden coffin of Archie, hung an incredibly drinking aroma of roses, incense and camphor. The works were interrupted – finding nearby caused headache and badness and over the dome of the Mausoleum was still a few days "Smoldish exciting smell". This is how another Asian legend has ended. However. Outlou After opening the grave, on June 22, war began. "East is a delicate matter".
Samarkand affects the decoration of monument buildings. It is here that you can see how the art of glazed facing reaches apogee and, it seems, it can be argued that all the technological capabilities of this type of decoration are tricked. Not the slightest surface without decor. And such an unrestrained abundance of multicolor glazed facing and ornamental paintings with gilding does not know any architecture neither before nor after XV. True, except for the Madrasa Tillacari of the XVII century. Your name "Middle" She received thanks to the interior of the Domeboard, decorated with painting "Kundal". Such solid gilding of large surfaces of the dome and walls in combination with multicolor ornaments on a velvet-blue background Ultramarina did not even know the masters of Timur. And finally, the main attraction of Samarkand is one of the most beautiful areas of the world Registan (XV-XVII centuries.). It is here that you can get acquainted with the peculiarity of the media of the Nevasia architecture: long and gradual knowing her world.
Come to the square with the first sun beam, when still thick, deep and sharply outlined shadows. Stun the ratio of volumes, lines, silhouettes, contrasts of the length of the walls and verticals of portals, minarets, highly raised domes. But the sun floods the registan with light – the life of the planes and colors begins. Now it is necessary to come closer, and then everything will appear on the new side: becoming clear ornamental panels and compositions, paint flares. Closer, closely. And opens a microworld of the finest details of Maitolika, virtuosity and artistry of the execution of threads and mosaic sets, filigree pattern on the glaze of surfaces. Just an incredible storehouse of impressions and unexpected discoveries.
Well, it’s time to break up with hospitable Uzbekistan. We did not have time to tell either about the palaces of Kokanda, neither about Shahrisabze, nor about the protected khiva, neither about hundreds of other monuments and museums. yes it is impossible. We just remembered the old Uzbek saying: "Not he knows more who lived more, but the one who saw more". And invite you to follow her and see everything with your own eyes.